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  • Nola (Present-Day in Naples, Italy)
    Wednesday Aug 19, 1914
    Roman Empire

    Augustus died

    Nola (Present-Day in Naples, Italy)
    Wednesday Aug 19, 1914

    In AD 14 Augustus died at the age of seventy-five, having ruled the empire for forty years, and was succeeded as emperor by Tiberius.




  • Rome
    Thursday Sep 17, 1914
    Roman Empire

    Tiberius's reign

    Rome
    Thursday Sep 17, 1914

    The early years of Tiberius's reign were relatively peaceful. Tiberius secured the overall power of Rome and enriched its treasury. However, his rule soon became characterized by paranoia. He began a series of treason trials and executions, which continued until his death in 37.




  • Rome
    Sunday Jan 16, 1927
    Roman Empire

    Augustus

    Rome
    Sunday Jan 16, 1927

    On 16 January 27 BC the Senate gave Octavian the new titles of Augustus and Princeps. Augustus is from the Latin word Augere (meaning to increase) and can be translated as "the illustrious one". It was a title of religious authority rather than political authority. His new title of Augustus was also more favorable than Romulus, the previous one which he styled for himself in reference to the story of the legendary founder of Rome, which symbolized a second founding of Rome.




  • Roman Republic (Present-Day Rome, Italy)
    Friday Sep 23, 1927
    Roman Republic

    Caesar Augustus (The first phase of the Roman Empire)

    Roman Republic (Present-Day Rome, Italy)
    Friday Sep 23, 1927

    Caesar Augustus, also known as Octavian, was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated a legacy as one of the most effective leaders in human history.




  • Rome, Italy
    Saturday Jan 1, 2033
    Cleopatra

    Octavian accused Antony

    Rome, Italy
    Saturday Jan 1, 2033

    On 1 January 33 BC, Octavian accused Antony of attempting to subvert Roman freedoms and authority as a slave to his Oriental queen, who he said was given lands that rightfully belonged to the Romans.




  • Miseno, Italy, Roman Empire
    Monday Mar 16, 2037
    Roman Empire

    Tiberius died

    Miseno, Italy, Roman Empire
    Monday Mar 16, 2037

    Tiberius died in Misenum on 16 March AD 37, a few months before his 78th birthday.




  • Roman Empire
    Monday Mar 16, 2037
    Roman Empire

    Caligula

    Roman Empire
    Monday Mar 16, 2037

    At the time of Tiberius's death, most of the people who might have succeeded him had been killed. The logical successor (and Tiberius' own choice) was his 24-year-old grandnephew, Gaius, better known as "Caligula" ("little boots").


  • Palatine Hill, Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
    Thursday Jan 24, 2041
    Roman Empire

    Caligula was assassinated

    Palatine Hill, Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
    Thursday Jan 24, 2041

    In 41, Caligula was assassinated by the commander of the guard Cassius Chaerea. Also killed were his fourth wife Caesonia and their daughter Julia Drusilla. For two days following his assassination, the senate debated the merits of restoring the Republic.


  • Rome
    Thursday Jan 24, 2041
    Roman Empire

    Claudius

    Rome
    Thursday Jan 24, 2041

    Claudius was a younger brother of Germanicus and had long been considered a weakling and a fool by the rest of his family. The Praetorian Guard, however, acclaimed him as emperor. Claudius was neither paranoid like his uncle Tiberius, nor insane like his nephew Caligula, and was, therefore, able to administer the Empire with reasonable ability.


  • Roman Republic (Present-Day Largo di Torre Argentina, Rome, Italy)
    Tuesday Mar 15, 2044
    Roman Republic

    Assassination of Julius Caesar

    Roman Republic (Present-Day Largo di Torre Argentina, Rome, Italy)
    Tuesday Mar 15, 2044

    Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, was assassinated by a group of senators during a meeting of the Senate at the Curia of Pompey of the Theatre of Pompey in Rome.


  • Rome, Italy
    Tuesday Mar 15, 2044
    Cleopatra

    Caesar was assassinated

    Rome, Italy
    Tuesday Mar 15, 2044

    Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (15 March 44 BC), but Cleopatra stayed in Rome until about mid-April, in the vain hope of having Caesarion recognized as Caesar's heir.


  • Roman Republic (Present-Day Rome, Italy)
    Friday Jan 1, 2049
    Roman Republic

    Caesar presented an ultimatum to the senate

    Roman Republic (Present-Day Rome, Italy)
    Friday Jan 1, 2049

    On 1 January 49, an agent of Caesar presented an ultimatum to the senate.


  • Roman Republic (Present-Day Italy)
    Thursday Jan 7, 2049
    Roman Republic

    Senatus consultum ultimum was vested Pompey with dictatorial powers

    Roman Republic (Present-Day Italy)
    Thursday Jan 7, 2049

    On 7 January of 49, the Senate passed a senatus consultum ultimum, which vested Pompey with dictatorial powers. Pompey's army, however, was composed largely of untested conscripts.


  • Bellaria-Igea Marina, Rimini, Italy
    Sunday Jan 10, 2049
    Roman Republic

    Caesar with his army crossed the river Rubicon

    Bellaria-Igea Marina, Rimini, Italy
    Sunday Jan 10, 2049

    On 10 January, Caesar with his veteran army crossed the river Rubicon, the legal boundary of Roman Italy beyond which no commander might bring his army.


  • Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
    Wednesday Oct 13, 1954
    Roman Empire

    Claudius died

    Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
    Wednesday Oct 13, 1954

    Claudius was deified later that year. The death of Claudius paved the way for Agrippina's own son, the 17-year-old Lucius Domitius Nero.


  • Rome
    Wednesday Oct 13, 1954
    Roman Empire

    Mad Nero

    Rome
    Wednesday Oct 13, 1954

    Nero ruled from 54 to 68. During his rule, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire.


  • Rome
    Saturday Jul 18, 1964
    Roman Empire

    Great Fire of Rome

    Rome
    Saturday Jul 18, 1964

    He believed himself a god and decided to build an opulent palace for himself. The so-called Domus Aurea, meaning golden house in Latin, was constructed atop the burnt remains of Rome after the Great Fire of Rome (64). Nero was ultimately responsible for the fire. By this time Nero was hugely unpopular despite his attempts to blame the Christians for most of his regime's problems.


  • Rome
    Saturday Jun 8, 1968
    Roman Empire

    Servius Sulpicius Galba

    Rome
    Saturday Jun 8, 1968

    Servius Sulpicius Galba, born as Lucius Livius Ocella Sulpicius Galba, was a Roman emperor who ruled from AD 68 to 69. He was the first emperor in the Year of the Four Emperors and assumed the position following Emperor Nero's suicide. Galba's physical weakness and general apathy led to him being selected over by favorites. Unable to gain popularity with the people or maintain the support of the Praetorian Guard, Galba was murdered by Otho, who became emperor in his place.


  • Outside Rome
    Sunday Jun 9, 1968
    Roman Empire

    Nero committed suicide

    Outside Rome
    Sunday Jun 9, 1968

    A military coup drove Nero into hiding. Facing execution at the hands of the Roman Senate, he reportedly committed suicide in 68. According to Cassius Dio, Nero's last words were "Jupiter, what an artist perishes in me!".


  • Rome
    Wednesday Jan 15, 1969
    Roman Empire

    Marcus Otho

    Rome
    Wednesday Jan 15, 1969

    Marcus Otho was Roman emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors. Inheriting the problem of the rebellion of Vitellius, commander of the army in Germania Inferior, Otho led a sizeable force that met Vitellius' army at the Battle of Bedriacum. After initial fighting resulted in 40,000 casualties, and a retreat of his forces, Otho committed suicide rather than fight on, and Vitellius was proclaimed emperor.


  • Rome
    Saturday Apr 19, 1969
    Roman Empire

    Aulus Vitellius

    Rome
    Saturday Apr 19, 1969

    Aulus Vitellius was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 19 April to 20 December AD 69. Vitellius was proclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. His claim to the throne was soon challenged by legions stationed in the eastern provinces, who proclaimed their commander Vespasian emperor instead. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for Vitellius at the Second Battle of Bedriacum in northern Italy. Once he realized his support was wavering, Vitellius prepared to abdicate in favor of Vespasian. He was not allowed to do so by his supporters, resulting in a brutal battle for Rome between Vitellius' forces and the armies of Vespasian. He was executed in Rome by Vespasian's soldiers on 20 December 69.


  • Rome
    Tuesday Jul 1, 1969
    Roman Empire

    Vespasian

    Rome
    Tuesday Jul 1, 1969

    As a result of the Second Battle of Bedriacum, Vespasian became the fourth and last emperor who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors, he founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for 27 years.


  • Rome
    Sunday Jun 24, 1979
    Roman Empire

    Titus Caesar Vespasianus

    Rome
    Sunday Jun 24, 1979

    Titus, Vespasian's successor, quickly proved his merit, although his short reign was marked by disaster, including the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Pompeii. He held the opening ceremonies in the still unfinished Colosseum but died in 81.


  • Rome
    Monday Sep 14, 1981
    Roman Empire

    Domitian

    Rome
    Monday Sep 14, 1981

    Titus' brother Domitian succeeded him. Having exceedingly poor relations with the Senate, Domitian was murdered in September 96.


  • Rome
    Wednesday Sep 18, 1996
    Roman Empire

    Nerva

    Rome
    Wednesday Sep 18, 1996

    On 18 September 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard and several of his freedmen. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. As the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties that had been curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian.


  • Gardens of Sallust, Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jan 27, 1998
    Roman Empire

    Nerva died

    Gardens of Sallust, Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jan 27, 1998

    After barely fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98. Upon his death, he was succeeded and deified by Trajan.


  • Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Sep 29, 106
    Roman Republic

    Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus

    Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Sep 29, 106

    Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was a leading Roman general and statesman. He played a significant role in the transformation of Rome from Republic to Empire. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was the elder son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. Both he and his younger brother Sextus Pompey grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and not originally a conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.


  • Roman Empire
    Wednesday Aug 11, 117
    Roman Empire

    Hadrian

    Roman Empire
    Wednesday Aug 11, 117

    Despite his own excellence as a military administrator, Hadrian's reign was marked more by the defense of the empire's vast territories, rather than major military conflicts.


  • Roman Empire
    Tuesday Feb 25, 138
    Roman Empire

    Antoninus Pius "adopted son"

    Roman Empire
    Tuesday Feb 25, 138

    Antoninus Pius acquired much favor with Hadrian, who adopted him as his son and successor on 25 February 138, after the death of his first adopted son Lucius Aelius, on the condition that Antoninus would, in turn, adopt Marcus Annius Verus, the son of his wife's brother, and Lucius, son of Lucius Aelius, who afterward became the emperors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.


  • Roman Empire
    Friday Jul 11, 138
    Roman Empire

    Antoninus Pius

    Roman Empire
    Friday Jul 11, 138

    Antoninus Pius's reign was comparatively peaceful; there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, in Mauretania, Judaea, and amongst the Brigantes in Britain, but none of them are considered serious.


  • Lorium, Etruria, Italy, Roman Empire
    Saturday Mar 7, 161
    Roman Empire

    Antoninus Pius died

    Lorium, Etruria, Italy, Roman Empire
    Saturday Mar 7, 161

    Antoninus was already ill; he died on 7 March.


  • Rome
    Saturday Mar 7, 161
    Roman Empire

    Marcus Aurelius

    Rome
    Saturday Mar 7, 161

    Marcus was effectively the sole ruler of the Empire. The formalities of the position would follow. The senate would soon grant him the name Augustus and the title imperator, and he would soon be formally elected as Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the official cults. Marcus made some show of resistance: the biographer writes that he was 'compelled' to take imperial power.


  • Rome, Roman Empire
    Monday Dec 31, 192
    Roman Empire

    Commodus died

    Rome, Roman Empire
    Monday Dec 31, 192

    On 31 December, Marcia poisoned Commodus' food, but he vomited up the poison, so the conspirators sent his wrestling partner Narcissus to strangle him in his bath.


  • Rome, Roman Empire
    Thursday Mar 28, 193
    Roman Empire

    Pertinax died

    Rome, Roman Empire
    Thursday Mar 28, 193

    On 28 March 193, Pertinax was at his palace when a contingent of some three hundred soldiers of the Praetorian Guard rushed the gates (two hundred according to Cassius Dio). Sources suggest that they had received only half their promised pay. Neither the guards on duty nor the palace officials chose to resist them. Pertinax sent Laetus to meet them, but he chose to side with the insurgents instead and deserted the emperor.


  • Rome
    Thursday Mar 28, 193
    Roman Empire

    Didius Julianus

    Rome
    Thursday Mar 28, 193

    Because Julianus bought his position rather than acquiring it conventionally through succession or conquest, he was a deeply unpopular emperor. When Julianus appeared in public, he frequently was greeted with groans and shouts of "robber and parricide." Once, a mob even obstructed his progress to the Capitol by pelting him with large stones.


  • Rome
    Sunday Jun 2, 193
    Roman Empire

    Julianus was sentenced to death

    Rome
    Sunday Jun 2, 193

    Julianus was sentenced to death.


  • Roman Republic (Present-Day Ancona, Italy)
    Thursday Jul 23, 207
    Roman Republic

    Battle of the Metaurus

    Roman Republic (Present-Day Ancona, Italy)
    Thursday Jul 23, 207

    The Battle of the Metaurus was a pivotal battle in the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage, fought in 207 BC near the Metauro River in Italy.


  • Rome
    Tuesday Dec 17, 211
    Roman Empire

    Caracalla tried unsuccessfully to murder Geta

    Rome
    Tuesday Dec 17, 211

    The current stability of their joint government was only through the mediation and leadership of their mother, Julia Domna, accompanied by other senior courtiers and generals in the military. The historian Herodian asserted that the brothers decided to split the empire into two halves, but with the strong opposition of their mother, the idea was rejected, when, by the end of 211, the situation had become unbearable. Caracalla tried unsuccessfully to murder Geta during the festival of Saturnalia (17 December).


  • Rome
    Thursday Dec 26, 211
    Roman Empire

    Caracalla murdered Geta

    Rome
    Thursday Dec 26, 211

    Finally, the next week, Caracalla had his mother arrange a peace meeting with his brother in his mother's apartments, thus depriving Geta of his bodyguards, and then had him murdered in her arms by centurions.


  • Canna, Cosenza, Italy
    Friday Aug 2, 216
    Roman Republic

    Battle of Cannae

    Canna, Cosenza, Italy
    Friday Aug 2, 216

    The Battle of Cannae was a key engagement of the Second Punic War between the Roman Republic and Carthage, fought on 2 August 216 BC near the ancient village of Cannae in Apulia, southeast Italy.


  • Rome
    Friday Apr 11, 217
    Roman Empire

    Macrinus was declared augustus

    Rome
    Friday Apr 11, 217

    On April 8, 217, Caracalla was assassinated traveling to Carrhae. Three days later, Macrinus was declared Augustus. Diadumenian was the son of Macrinus, born in 208. He was given the title Caesar in 217, when his father became augustus, and raised to co-Augustus the following year.


  • Perugia, Italy
    Saturday Jun 21, 217
    Roman Republic

    Battle of Lake Trasimene

    Perugia, Italy
    Saturday Jun 21, 217

    The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought when a Carthaginian force under Hannibal ambushed a Roman army commanded by Gaius Flaminius on 21 June 217 BC, during the Second Punic War.


  • Rome
    Wednesday Mar 6, 222
    Roman Empire

    A romur

    Rome
    Wednesday Mar 6, 222

    Alexander Severus was adopted as son and caesar by his slightly older and very unpopular cousin, the emperor Elagabalus at the urging of the influential and powerful Julia Maesa — who was the grandmother of both cousins and who had arranged for the emperor's acclamation by the Third Legion. On March 6, 222, when Alexander was just fourteen, a rumor went around the city troops that Alexander had been killed, triggering a revolt of the guards that had sworn his safety from Elegabalus and his accession as emperor.


  • Rome
    Wednesday Mar 13, 222
    Roman Empire

    Severus Alexander

    Rome
    Wednesday Mar 13, 222

    The running of the Empire during this time was mainly left to his grandmother and mother (Julia Soaemias). Seeing that her grandson's outrageous behavior could mean the loss of power, Julia Maesa persuaded Elagabalus to accept his cousin Alexander Severus as caesar (and thus the nominal emperor-to-be). However, Alexander was popular with the troops, who viewed their new emperor with dislike: when Elagabalus, jealous of this popularity, removed the title of caesar from his nephew, the enraged Praetorian Guard swore to protect him. Elagabalus and his mother were murdered in a Praetorian Guard camp mutiny.


  • Rome
    Sunday Mar 22, 235
    Roman Empire

    Maximinus Thrax

    Rome
    Sunday Mar 22, 235

    The emperor at the beginning of the year was Maximinus Thrax, who had ruled since 235. Later sources claim he was a cruel tyrant, and in January of 238, a revolt erupted in North Africa.


  • Rome
    Sunday Apr 22, 238
    Roman Empire

    Pupienus and Balbinus joint emperors

    Rome
    Sunday Apr 22, 238

    Meanwhile, Maximinus, now declared a public enemy, had already begun to march on Rome with another army. The senate's previous candidates, the Gordians, had failed to defeat him, and knowing that they stood to die if he succeeded, the senate needed a new emperor to defeat him. With no other candidates in view, on 22 April 238, they elected two elderly senators, Pupienus and Balbinus (who had both been part of a special senatorial commission to deal with Maximinus), as joint emperors. Therefore, Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius, the thirteen-year-old grandson of Gordian I, was nominated as emperor Gordian III, holding power only nominally in order to appease the population of the capital, which was still loyal to the Gordian family.


  • Aquileia, Italy, Roman Empire
    Thursday May 10, 238
    Roman Empire

    Maximinus Thrax died

    Aquileia, Italy, Roman Empire
    Thursday May 10, 238

    In May 238, soldiers of the II Parthica in his camp assassinated him, his son, and his chief ministers. Their heads were cut off, placed on poles, and carried to Rome by cavalrymen.


  • Rome
    Sunday Jul 29, 238
    Roman Empire

    Gordian III was proclaimed sole emperor

    Rome
    Sunday Jul 29, 238

    The situation for Pupienus and Balbinus, despite Maximinus' death, was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian was proclaimed sole emperor.


  • Rome
    Saturday Oct 22, 253
    Roman Empire

    Valerian's first act as emperor

    Rome
    Saturday Oct 22, 253

    Valerian's first act as emperor on October 22, 253, was to appoint his son Gallienus caesar. Early in his reign, affairs in Europe went from bad to worse, and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Sassanid vassal and Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor).


  • Rome, Italy
    Tuesday Feb 16, 269
    Valentine's Day

    Saint Valentine's death

    Rome, Italy
    Tuesday Feb 16, 269

    Saint Valentine was martyred by emperor Claudius II Gothicus and was buried in via falminia.


  • Rome
    Friday Dec 25, 274
    Roman Empire

    Temple of the Sun

    Rome
    Friday Dec 25, 274

    Aurelian strengthened the position of the Sun god Sol Invictus as the main divinity of the Roman pantheon. His intention was to give to all the peoples of the Empire, civilians or soldiers, easterners or westerners, a single god they could believe in without betraying their own gods. The centre of the cult was a new temple, built in 274 and dedicated on December 25 of that year in the Campus Agrippae in Rome, with great decorations financed by the spoils of the Palmyrene Empire.


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