Historydraft LogoHistorydraft Logo HistorydraftbetaHistorydraft Logo Historydraftbeta

  • Russian Empire
    1861

    Emancipation reform

    Russian Empire
    1861

    Every year, thousands of nobles in debt mortgaged their estates to the noble land bank or sold them to municipalities, merchants, or peasants. By the time of the revolution, the nobility had sold off one-third of its land and mortgaged another third. The government hoped to make peasants—freed by the Emancipation reform of 1861—a politically conservative, land-holding class by enacting laws to enable them to buy land from nobility and pay small installments over many decades.




  • Kharkov and Poltava, Russian Empire (Now Ukraine)
    1902

    In the provinces of Kharkov and Poltava

    Kharkov and Poltava, Russian Empire (Now Ukraine)
    1902

    "In the provinces of Kharkov and Poltava in 1902, thousands of them, ignoring restraints and authority, burst out in a rebellious fury that led to extensive destruction of property and looting of noble homes before troops could be brought to subdue and punish them".




  • Russian Empire
    Mar, 1902

    Worker strikes in Caucasus broke out

    Russian Empire
    Mar, 1902

    Worker strikes in Caucasus broke out in March 1902 and strikes on the railway originating from pay disputes took on other issues and drew in other industries, culminating in a general strike at Rostov-on-Don in November.




  • Russian Empire
    1903

    Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists

    Russian Empire
    1903

    Russian progressives formed the Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists in 1903.




  • Russian Empire
    1903

    Payments of taxes

    Russian Empire
    1903

    By 1903 their total arrears in payments of taxes and dues was 118 million rubles".




  • Russian Empire
    1904

    Rise of political terrorism

    Russian Empire
    1904

    The years 1904 and 1907 saw a decline of mass movements, strikes and protests, and a rise of political terrorism. Combat groups such as the SR Combat Organization carried out many assassinations targeting civil servants and police, and robberies. Between 1906 and 1909, revolutionaries killed 7,293 people, of whom 2,640 were officials, and wounded 8,061.




  • Russian Empire
    1904

    Union of Liberation

    Russian Empire
    1904

    Union of Liberation established in 1904.


  • Helsinki, Finland (Then Russian Empire)
    Thursday Jun 30, 1904

    Governor-General of Finland killed

    Helsinki, Finland (Then Russian Empire)
    Thursday Jun 30, 1904

    Nikolai Bobrikov Governor-General of Finland killed 30 June [O.S. 17 June] 1904 in Helsinki.


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Wednesday Aug 10, 1904

    Minister of Interior killed

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Wednesday Aug 10, 1904

    Vyacheslav von Plehve Minister of Interior killed 10 August [O.S. 28 July] 1904 in Saint Petersburg.


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Dec, 1904

    Strike occurred at the Putilov plant

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Dec, 1904

    In December 1904, a strike occurred at the Putilov plant (a railway and artillery supplier) in St. Petersburg. Sympathy strikes in other parts of the city raised the number of strikers to 150,000 workers in 382 factories.


  • Moscow, Russian Empire
    Tuesday Dec 13, 1904

    Moscow City Duma

    Moscow, Russian Empire
    Tuesday Dec 13, 1904

    On 13 December [O.S. 30 November] 1904, the Moscow City Duma passed a resolution demanding establishment of an elected national legislature, full freedom of the press, and freedom of religion. Similar resolutions and appeals from other city dumas and zemstvo councils followed.


  • Zemstvo, Russian Empire
    Sunday Dec 25, 1904

    Tsar issued a manifesto promising the broadening of the Zemstvo

    Zemstvo, Russian Empire
    Sunday Dec 25, 1904

    Tsar Nicholas II made a move to fulfil many of these demands, appointing liberal Pyotr Dmitrievich Sviatopolk-Mirsky Minister of the Interior after the assassination of Vyacheslav von Plehve. On 25 December [O.S. 12 December] 1904, the Tsar issued a manifesto promising the broadening of the Zemstvo and more authority local municipal councils, insurance for industrial workers, the emancipation of Inorodtsy and the abolition of censorship. The crucial demand of representative national legislature was missing in the manifesto.


  • Russian Empire
    1905

    The Commission was headed by Senator NV Shidlovsky

    Russian Empire
    1905

    The commission was headed by Senator NV Shidlovsky, a member of the State Council, and included officials, chiefs of government factories, and private factory owners. It was also meant to have included workers’ delegates elected according to a two-stage system.


  • Russian Empire
    1905

    Tsar made last attempts to save his regime

    Russian Empire
    1905

    Following the Revolution of 1905, the Tsar made last attempts to save his regime, and offered reforms similar to most rulers when pressured by a revolutionary movement. The military remained loyal throughout the Revolution of 1905, as shown by their shooting of revolutionaries when ordered by the Tsar, making overthrow difficult.


  • Russian Empire
    1905

    Half of European Russia's industrial workers went on strike

    Russian Empire
    1905

    Half of European Russia's industrial workers went on strike in 1905, and 93.2% in Poland.


  • Ivanovo Voznesensk, Russian Empire
    1905

    Russian Manchester

    Ivanovo Voznesensk, Russian Empire
    1905

    Ivanovo Voznesensk was known as the 'Russian Manchester' for its textile mills. In 1905, its local revolutionaries were overwhelmingly Bolshevik. It was the first Bolshevik branch in which workers outnumbered intellectuals.


  • Russian Empire
    1905

    Causes

    Russian Empire
    1905

    According to Sidney Harcave, author of The Russian Revolution of 1905 (1970), four problems in Russian society contributed to the revolution. Newly emancipated peasants earned too little and were not allowed to sell or mortgage their allotted land. Ethnic minorities resented the government because of its "Russification", discrimination and repression, such as banning them from voting, serving in the Imperial Guard or Navy, and limiting their attendance in schools. A nascent industrial working class resented the government for doing too little to protect them, as it banned strikes and labor unions. Finally, radical ideas fomented and spread after a relaxing of discipline in universities allowed a new consciousness to grow among students.


  • Russian Empire
    1905

    Preceded by a Progressive and academic agitation

    Russian Empire
    1905

    The events of 1905 were preceded by a Progressive and academic agitation for more political democracy and limits to Tsarist rule in Russia, and an increase in strikes by workers against employers for radical economic demands and union recognition, (especially in southern Russia). Many socialists view this as a period when the rising revolutionary movement was met with rising reactionary movements.


  • Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    Jan, 1905

    Over 400,000 workers in Russian Poland were on strike

    Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    Jan, 1905

    By the end of January 1905, over 400,000 workers in Russian Poland were on strike.


  • Port Arthur, China
    Monday Jan 02, 1905

    Port Arthur was lost

    Port Arthur, China
    Monday Jan 02, 1905

    With the unsuccessful and bloody Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) there was unrest in army reserve units. On 2 January 1905, Port Arthur was lost.


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Thursday Jan 12, 1905

    Tsar appointed Dmitri Feodorovich Trepov as governor in St Petersburg

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Thursday Jan 12, 1905

    On 12 January, the Tsar appointed Dmitri Feodorovich Trepov as governor in St Petersburg.


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Saturday Jan 21, 1905

    The City had no electricity and newspaper distribution was halted

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Saturday Jan 21, 1905

    By 21 January [O.S. 8 January] 1905, the city had no electricity and newspaper distribution was halted. All public areas were declared closed.


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Sunday Jan 22, 1905

    Controversial Orthodox priest Georgy Gapon, who headed a police-sponsored workers' association, led a huge workers' procession to the Winter Palace to deliver a petition to the Tsar

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Sunday Jan 22, 1905

    Controversial Orthodox priest Georgy Gapon, who headed a police-sponsored workers' association, led a huge workers' procession to the Winter Palace to deliver a petition to the Tsar on Sunday, 22 January [O.S. 9 January] 1905.


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Sunday Jan 22, 1905

    Bloody Sunday

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Sunday Jan 22, 1905

    One of the major contributing factors that changed Russia from a country in unrest to a country in revolt was "Bloody Sunday". Loyalty to the tsar Nicholas II was lost when his soldiers fired upon people led by Georgy Gapon on 22 January 1905, who were attempting to present a petition to the tsar.


  • Riga, Lativa
    Thursday Jan 26, 1905

    130 protesters were killed

    Riga, Lativa
    Thursday Jan 26, 1905

    There were also strikes in Finland and the Baltic coast. In Riga, 130 protesters were killed on 26 January [O.S. 13 January] 1905, and in Warsaw a few days later over 100 strikers were shot on the streets.


  • Mukden, China
    Feb, 1905

    Russian army was defeated at Mukden

    Mukden, China
    Feb, 1905

    In February 1905, the Russian army was defeated at Mukden, losing almost 80,000 men.


  • Russian Empire
    Friday Feb 17, 1905

    The Tsar made new concessions

    Russian Empire
    Friday Feb 17, 1905

    Following the assassination of his uncle, the Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich, on 17 February [O.S. 4 February] 1905, the Tsar made new concessions.


  • Moscow, Russian Empire
    Friday Feb 17, 1905

    Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia killed

    Moscow, Russian Empire
    Friday Feb 17, 1905

    Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia killed 17 February [O.S. 4 February] 1905 in Moscow.


  • Russian Empire
    Saturday Feb 18, 1905

    State Duma

    Russian Empire
    Saturday Feb 18, 1905

    Tsar Nicholas II agreed on 18 February [O.S. 5 February] to the creation of a State Duma of the Russian Empire but with consultative powers only. When its slight powers and limits on the electorate were revealed, unrest redoubled.


  • Russian Empire
    Saturday Feb 18, 1905

    Tsar dismissed the Minister of the Interior

    Russian Empire
    Saturday Feb 18, 1905

    Tsar dismissed the Minister of the Interior, Pyotr Sviatopolk-Mirskii, on 18 February [O.S. 5 February] 1905.


  • Russian Empire
    Saturday Feb 18, 1905

    Bulygin Rescript

    Russian Empire
    Saturday Feb 18, 1905

    On 18 February [O.S. 5 February] 1905, Tsar published the Bulygin Rescript, which promised the formation of a consultative assembly, religious tolerance, freedom of speech (in the form of language rights for the Polish minority) and a reduction in the peasants' redemption payments.


  • Helsinki, Finland, (then Russian Empire)
    Sunday Feb 19, 1905

    Procurator of Justice of Finland killed

    Helsinki, Finland, (then Russian Empire)
    Sunday Feb 19, 1905

    Eliel Soisalon-Soininen Procurator of Justice of Finland killed 19 February [O.S. 6 February] 1905 in Helsinki.


  • Russian Empire
    Sunday Mar 05, 1905

    The Commission was dissolved without having started work

    Russian Empire
    Sunday Mar 05, 1905

    Elections of the workers delegates were, however, blocked by the socialists who wanted to divert the workers from the elections to the armed struggle. On 5 March [O.S. 20 February] 1905, the Commission was dissolved without having started work.


  • Russian Empire
    Thursday May 11, 1905

    The 'Group', the revolutionary leadership, called for the workers at all the textile mills to strike

    Russian Empire
    Thursday May 11, 1905

    11 May 1905: The 'Group', the revolutionary leadership, called for the workers at all the textile mills to strike.


  • Russian Empire
    Friday May 12, 1905

    The Strike begins

    Russian Empire
    Friday May 12, 1905

    12 May: The strike begins. Strike leaders meet in the local woods.


  • Russian Empire
    Saturday May 13, 1905

    40,000 workers assemble before the Administration Building to give Svirskii

    Russian Empire
    Saturday May 13, 1905

    13 May: 40,000 workers assemble before the Administration Building to give Svirskii, the regional factory inspector, a list of demands.


  • Russian Empire
    Sunday May 14, 1905

    Workers' delegates are elected

    Russian Empire
    Sunday May 14, 1905

    14 May: Workers' delegates are elected. Svirskii had suggested they do so, as he wanted people to negotiate with. A mass meeting is held in Administration Square. Svirskii tells them the mill owners will not meet their demands but will negotiate with elected mill delegates, who will be immune to prosecution, according to the governor.


  • Russian Empire
    Monday May 15, 1905

    Svirskii tells the strikers they can negotiate only about each factory in turn, but they can hold elections wherever

    Russian Empire
    Monday May 15, 1905

    15 May: Svirskii tells the strikers they can negotiate only about each factory in turn, but they can hold elections wherever. The strikers elect delegates to represent each mill while they are still out in the streets. Later the delegates elect a chairman.


  • Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
    Wednesday May 17, 1905

    The meetings are moved to the bank of the Talka River

    Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
    Wednesday May 17, 1905

    17 May: The meetings are moved to the bank of the Talka River, on suggestion by the police chief.


  • Moscow, Russian Empire
    Wednesday May 24, 1905

    300 Zemstvo and municipal representatives held three meetings in Moscow

    Moscow, Russian Empire
    Wednesday May 24, 1905

    On 24 and 25 May [O.S. 11 and 12 May] 1905, about 300 Zemstvo and municipal representatives held three meetings in Moscow, which passed a resolution, asking for popular representation at the national level.


  • Tsushima, Japan (Then China)
    Saturday May 27, 1905

    Russian Baltic Fleet was defeated

    Tsushima, Japan (Then China)
    Saturday May 27, 1905

    On 27–28 May 1905, the Russian Baltic Fleet was defeated at Tsushima.


  • Russian Empire
    Saturday May 27, 1905

    The delegates' meeting house is closed

    Russian Empire
    Saturday May 27, 1905

    27 May: The delegates' meeting house is closed.


  • Russian Empire
    Jun, 1905

    There were many peasant uprisings in which peasants seized land and tools

    Russian Empire
    Jun, 1905

    In June and July 1905, there were many peasant uprisings in which peasants seized land and tools.


  • (Then Poland, Russian Empire) Now Poland
    Jun, 1905

    Disturbances in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland culminated

    (Then Poland, Russian Empire) Now Poland
    Jun, 1905

    Disturbances in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland culminated in June 1905 in the Łódź insurrection. Surprisingly, only one landlord was recorded as killed. Far more violence was inflicted on peasants outside the commune: 50 deaths were recorded.


  • Russian Empire
    Saturday Jun 03, 1905

    Cossacks break up a workers' meeting

    Russian Empire
    Saturday Jun 03, 1905

    3 June: Cossacks break up a workers' meeting, arresting over 20 men. Workers start sabotaging telephone wires and burn down a mill.


  • Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jun 06, 1905

    Nicholas II had received a Zemstvo deputation

    Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jun 06, 1905

    On 6 June [O.S. 24 May] 1905, Nicholas II had received a Zemstvo deputation. Responding to speeches by Prince Sergei Trubetskoi and Mr Fyodrov, the Tsar confirmed his promise to convene an assembly of people's representatives.


  • Russian Empire
    Friday Jun 09, 1905

    The Police chief resigns

    Russian Empire
    Friday Jun 09, 1905

    9 June: The police chief resigns.


  • Moscow, Russian Empire
    Monday Jun 12, 1905

    All prisoners are released

    Moscow, Russian Empire
    Monday Jun 12, 1905

    12 June: All prisoners are released. Most mill owners flee to Moscow. Neither side gives in.


  • Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jun 27, 1905

    Workers agree to stop striking 1 July

    Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jun 27, 1905

    27 June: Workers agree to stop striking 1 July.


  • Kittery, Maine, U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 05, 1905

    Treaty of Portsmouth

    Kittery, Maine, U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 05, 1905

    Witte was dispatched to make peace, negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth (signed 5 September [O.S. 23 August] 1905).


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Oct, 1905

    The Saint Petersburg Soviet was formed and called for a general strike in October

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Oct, 1905

    The Saint Petersburg Soviet was formed and called for a general strike in October, refusal to pay taxes, and the withdrawal of bank deposits.


  • Russian Empire
    Saturday Oct 14, 1905

    October Manifesto

    Russian Empire
    Saturday Oct 14, 1905

    The October Manifesto, written by Sergei Witte and Alexis Obolenskii, was presented to the Tsar on 14 October [O.S. 1 October]. It closely followed the demands of the Zemstvo Congress in September, granting basic civil rights, allowing the formation of political parties, extending the franchise towards universal suffrage, and establishing the Duma as the central legislative body.


  • Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Saturday Oct 21, 1905

    Strike by railway workers

    Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
    Saturday Oct 21, 1905

    A strike by railway workers on 21 October [O.S. 8 October] 1905 quickly developed into a general strike in Saint Petersburg and Moscow.


  • Russian Empire
    Thursday Oct 26, 1905

    2 million workers were on strike and there were almost no active railways in all of Russia

    Russian Empire
    Thursday Oct 26, 1905

    By 26 October [O.S. 13 October] 1905, over 2 million workers were on strike and there were almost no active railways in all of Russia. Growing inter-ethnic confrontation throughout the Caucasus resulted in Armenian-Tatar massacres, heavily damaging the cities and the Baku oilfields.


  • Tallinn, Estonia, Russian Empire
    Sunday Oct 29, 1905

    The Russian army opened fire in a meeting on a street market in Tallinn in which about 8 000-10 000 people

    Tallinn, Estonia, Russian Empire
    Sunday Oct 29, 1905

    In the Governorate of Estonia, Estonians called for freedom of the press and assembly, for universal suffrage, and for national autonomy. On 29 October [O.S. 16 October], the Russian army opened fire in a meeting on a street market in Tallinn in which about 8 000-10 000 people participated, killing 94 and injuring over 200. The October Manifesto was supported in Estonia and the Estonian flag was displayed publicly for the first time.


  • Russian Empire
    Monday Oct 30, 1905

    Tsar finally signed the manifesto

    Russian Empire
    Monday Oct 30, 1905

    The Tsar waited and argued for three days, but finally signed the manifesto on 30 October [O.S. 17 October] 1905, citing his desire to avoid a massacre and his realisation that there was insufficient military force available to pursue alternative options. He regretted signing the document, saying that he felt "sick with shame at this betrayal of the dynasty ... the betrayal was complete".


  • (Sevastopol, Russian Empire) Now Ukrainian Special Status City
    Nov, 1905

    November uprising

    (Sevastopol, Russian Empire) Now Ukrainian Special Status City
    Nov, 1905

    While the Russian liberals were satisfied by the October Manifesto and prepared for upcoming Duma elections, radical socialists and revolutionaries denounced the elections and called for an armed uprising to destroy the Empire. Some of the November uprising of 1905 in Sevastopol, headed by retired naval Lieutenant Pyotr Schmidt, was directed against the government, while some was undirected. It included terrorism, worker strikes, peasant unrest and military mutinies, and was only suppressed after a fierce battle. The Trans-Baikal railroad fell into the hands of striker committees and demobilised soldiers returning from Manchuria after the Russo–Japanese War. The Tsar had to send a special detachment of loyal troops along the Trans-Siberian Railway to restore order.


  • Russian Empire (Present Day Finland)
    Sunday Nov 12, 1905

    Grand Duchy of Finland, the Social Democrats organised the general strike

    Russian Empire (Present Day Finland)
    Sunday Nov 12, 1905

    In the Grand Duchy of Finland, the Social Democrats organised the general strike of 1905 (12–19 November [O.S. 30 October – 6 November]).


  • Russian Empire
    Dec, 1905

    Uprisings ended

    Russian Empire
    Dec, 1905

    After a final spasm in Moscow, the uprisings ended in December 1905.


  • Russian Empire
    Tuesday Dec 05, 1905

    There was a general strike by Russian workers

    Russian Empire
    Tuesday Dec 05, 1905

    Between 5 and 7 December [O.S. 22 and 24 November], there was a general strike by Russian workers.


  • Russian Empire
    Tuesday Dec 05, 1905

    Former war minister killed

    Russian Empire
    Tuesday Dec 05, 1905

    Viktor Sakharov former war minister killed 5 December [O.S. 22 November] 1905.


  • Russian Empire
    Thursday Dec 07, 1905

    The government sent troops

    Russian Empire
    Thursday Dec 07, 1905

    The government sent troops on 7 December, and a bitter street-by-street fight began.


  • Russian Empire
    Monday Dec 18, 1905

    Workers surrendered

    Russian Empire
    Monday Dec 18, 1905

    A week later, the Semyonovsky Regiment was deployed, and used artillery to break up demonstrations and to shell workers' districts. On 18 December [O.S. 5 December], with around a thousand people dead and parts of the city in ruins, the workers surrendered.


  • Russian Empire
    Apr, 1906

    More than 14,000 people had been executed and 75,000 imprisoned

    Russian Empire
    Apr, 1906

    According to figures presented in the Duma by Professor Maksim Kovalevsky, by April 1906, more than 14,000 people had been executed and 75,000 imprisoned.


  • Russian Empire
    Sunday May 06, 1906

    The Russian Constitution of 1906

    Russian Empire
    Sunday May 06, 1906

    The Russian Constitution of 1906, Created 6 May [O.S. 23 April] 1906, also known as the Fundamental Laws, set up a multiparty system and a limited constitutional monarchy. The revolutionaries were quelled and satisfied with the reforms, but it was not enough to prevent the 1917 revolution that would later topple the Tsar's regime.


  • Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jul 24, 1906

    The Commander of the Black Sea Fleet killed

    Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jul 24, 1906

    Admiral Chukhnin the commander of the Black Sea Fleet killed 24 July [O.S. 11 July] 1906.


  • Helsinki, Finland, Russian Empire (Now Finland)
    Sunday Aug 12, 1906

    Russian artillerymen and military engineers rose in revolt in the fortress of Sveaborg

    Helsinki, Finland, Russian Empire (Now Finland)
    Sunday Aug 12, 1906

    On 12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1906, Russian artillerymen and military engineers rose in revolt in the fortress of Sveaborg (later called Suomenlinna), Helsinki. The Finnish Red Guards supported the Sveaborg Rebellion with a general strike, but the mutiny was quelled within 60 hours by loyal troops and ships of the Baltic Fleet.


  • Tver, Russian Empire
    Saturday Dec 22, 1906

    Aleksey Ignatyev killed

    Tver, Russian Empire
    Saturday Dec 22, 1906

    Aleksey Ignatyev killed 22 December [O.S. 9 December] 1906.


<