The Xia dynasty of China (from c. 2070 to c. 1600 BC) is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian and Bamboo Annals.
Yu the Great completed a drainage system that ended the periodic and destructive flooding of the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers.
The Nine Tripod Cauldrons were forged from metal given in tribute to Yu by the Nine Provinces.
According to ancient records, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao, which was between Xia dynasty and the Shang dynasty, resulting in a Shang victory that created the elevation circumstances of the Duke of Shang to the throne of China.
Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang dynasty, c. 1600–1046 BC, are divided into two sets. The first set, from the earlier Shang period, comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou, and Shangcheng.
The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, is at Anyang, in modern-day Henan, which has been confirmed as the last of the Shang's nine capitals (c. 1300–1046 BC).
The capital of the Shang dynasty was moved from Yan to Yin.
Pan Geng became king of the Shang dynasty.
Wu Ding became king of the Shang dynasty.
The findings at Anyang include the earliest written record of the Chinese so far discovered: inscriptions of divination records in ancient Chinese writing on the bones or shells of animals—the "oracle bones", dating from around 1250 BC.
Wu died. He was succeeded by his son Zu Geng of Shang.
Geng Ding became king of the Shang dynasty.
Geng was succeeded by his son Wu Yi of Shang.
Wu Yi was killed by lightning while out hunting. He was succeeded by his son Wen Ding.
Wen was succeeded by his son Di Yi.
Di Yi was succeeded as king of the Shang dynasty by his son King Zhou of Shang.
The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent, managed to defeat King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye.
Resulting Suicide of King Zhòu of Shang and the fall of Shang dynasty.
Wu was succeeded by his son King Cheng of Zhou.
Chinese bronze inscriptions came into use.
Cheng was succeeded by his son King Kang of Zhou.
The Gonghe Regency was an interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 BC to 828 BC after King Li of Zhou was exiled by his nobles during the Compatriots Rebellion when the Chinese people rioted against their old corrupt king. It lasted until the ascension of King Li's son, King Xuan of Zhou.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BCE which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BCE, which tradition associates with Confucius (551–479 BCE).
You's son King Ping of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Marquess of Shen, whose daughter had been replaced by Bao Si as queen, led an attack on Haojing in alliance with the Quanrong. Yo and Bao's son Bofu were killed.
Ping moved the Zhou capital east to Luoyang.
Ping's grandson King Huan of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Huan, in coalition with the Zhou vassal states Chen, Cai, and Wey, led a punitive expedition against Zheng. The coalition was defeated and Huan was wounded.
Huan's son King Zhuang of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Zhuang's son King Xi of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Xi's son King Hui of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Hui's son King Xiang of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Battle of Chengpu took place in 632 BC between the State of Jin and the State of Chu and its allies during the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. It was the first great battle in the protracted conflict between the states of the Yellow River valley, and the states of the Yangtze River valley. The Jin victory confirmed the hegemony of Duke Wen and checked Chu ambitions in the north for at least a generation.
Chu decisively defeated Jin at Bi, near modern Xingyang.
A numerically superior Chu force was defeated by Jin in modern Yanling County. King Gong of Chu was injured.
Confucius was born.
The Chinese people were first divided into a caste system of four occupations.
The Zheng prime minister Zichan established the state's first written civil code.
Dao was murdered by his brother.
King Dao of Zhou became the King.
Dao's brother Ji Gai, King Jing of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
King Zhending of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Wu king Liao was killed by the assassin Zhuan Zhu.
King Helü of Wu became king of Wu.
Wu decisively defeated a numerically superior Chu force at Boju.
The Cast iron was first invented in China.
The Wu king King Fuchai of Wu ordered the building of the Han Canal.
The Yue king King Goujian of Yue captured the Wu capital in a surprise assault.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
King Yuan of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Wu was annexed by Yue.
Mozi was born.
Ai was murdered and succeeded as king by his younger brother King Si of Zhou.
Zhending died. He was succeeded by his son King Ai of Zhou.
Si was murdered by his brother King Kao of Zhou.
King Weilie of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Weilie recognized the Jin nobles Marquess Wen of Wei, Marquess Lie of Zhao, and Marquess Jing of Han as marquesses, granting de jure independence from Jin to the states of Wei, Zhao, and Han.
King An of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The first Chinese star catalog was compiled.
The earliest surviving Chinese maps appeared.
Gan De was born.
Shi Shen was born.
The Zuo Zhuan was published.
The city of Handan was founded to serve as the Zhao capital.
The Chu prime minister Wu Qi was murdered by nobles at the funeral of its king King Dao of Chu.
Zhuang Zhou was born.
Duke Xiao of Qin became duke of Qin.
Xiao's adviser Shang Yang implemented a legal code in Qin based on the Canon of Laws which established punishment for complicity in a crime, established a system of military ranks, and implemented policies encouraging the cultivation of unsettled land.
Wei laid siege to the Zhao capital Handan.
The Wei army fled Handan in response to reports of a Qi attack on their capital Daliang and was defeated by Qi forces at Guiling, in modern Changyuan County.
Qi dealt Wei a bloody defeat.
The Battle of Maling took place in Maling, currently Dazhangjia Town, Shen County, Henan Province, in 342 BC during the Warring States period (476–221 BC).
The combatants were the State of Qi, who fought on behalf of the State of Han, and the State of Wei.
This battle is well recorded in history texts and is famous for the tactics of Sun Bin, known as the "Tactic of Missing Stoves", in which one side is led to underestimate the other by creating an illusion of soldiers running away from the army.
The Confucian Mencius became a Qi official.
Ba was conquered and annexed by Qin.
Shu was conquered and annexed by Qin.
Xun Kuang was born.
King Wu of Qin became king of Qin.
Zou Yan was born.
The Guodian Chu Slips were produced.
Erya was published.
The Tsinghua Bamboo Slips were written.
Qin dealt a bloody defeat to a Wei-Han alliance.
Qin conquered the Chu capital Ying.
Zhao intercepted a Qin invasion of the commandery of Shangdang.
The Battle of Changping was a military campaign that took place during the Warring States period in ancient China. It concluded in 260 BC with a decisive victory by the State of Qin over the State of Zhao, greatly weakening Zhao.
Qin forces encircled the Zhao army, forcing its surrender. The Zhao general Zhao Kuo was killed in action.
Qin Shi Huang is Born.
The Dujiangyan irrigation system was built.
The Zhengguo Canal was completed by Zheng Guo of Qin.
Qin's wars of unification had begun by invading Han.
Jing Ke failed in an assassination attempt on Qin Shi Huang.
Qin conquered Wei.
Qin conquered Chu.
Qin conquered Zhao.
Qin conquered Yan.
Qin Shi Huang took the title Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China.
The Heirloom Seal of the Realm was carved.
Qin conquered Qi.
Construction began on the Great Wall of China.