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  • Tartus, Syria
    31st Century BC

    Amrit was Aramean city

    Tartus, Syria
    31st Century BC

    Amrit was a Phoenician port located near present-day Tartus in Syria. Founded in the third millennium BC, Marat was the northernmost important city of ancient Phoenicia and a rival of nearby Arwad.




  • Idlib, Syria
    2300 BC

    The toponym A-ra-mu appears in an inscription at the East Semitic

    Idlib, Syria
    2300 BC

    The toponym A-ra-mu appears in an inscription at the East Semitic speaking kingdom of Ebla listing geographical names, and the term Armi, which is the Eblaite term for nearby Idlib, occurs frequently in the Ebla tablets (c. 2300 BCE).




  • Tell Mardikh, Idlib, Syria
    2300 BC

    The first time appeared of Arameans

    Tell Mardikh, Idlib, Syria
    2300 BC

    The toponym A-ra-mu appears in an inscription at the East Semitic speaking kingdom of Ebla listing geographical names, and the term Armi, which is the Eblaite term for nearby Idlib, occurs frequently in the Ebla tablets (c. 2300 BCE).




  • Al-Hasakah, Syria
    2250 BC

    The annals of Naram-Sin of Akkad

    Al-Hasakah, Syria
    2250 BC

    One of the annals of Naram-Sin of Akkad (c. 2250 BCE) mentions that he captured "Dubul, the ensí of A-ra-me", in the course of a campaign against Simurrum in the northern mountains.




  • Baghdad, Iraq
    2250 BC

    Naram-Sin of Akkad

    Baghdad, Iraq
    2250 BC

    One of the annals of Naram-Sin of Akkad (c. 2250 BCE) mentions that he captured "Dubul, the ensí of A-ra-me", in the course of a campaign against Simurrum in the northern mountains.




  • Syria
    1360s BC

    Arameans gained independence

    Syria
    1360s BC

    The Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BCE), which had dominated the Near East and Asia Minor since the first half of the 14th century BCE, began to shrink rapidly after the death of Ashur-bel-kala, its last great ruler in 1056 BCE, and the Assyrian withdrawal allowed the Arameans and others to gain independence and take firm control of what was then Eber-Nari (and is today Syria) during the late 11th century BCE.




  • Syria
    1200 BC

    The emergence of the Arameans occurred during the Bronze Age collapse

    Syria
    1200 BC

    The emergence of the Arameans occurred during the Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BCE), which saw great upheavals and mass movements of peoples across the Middle East, Asia Minor, The Caucasus, East Mediterranean, North Africa, Ancient Iran, Ancient Greece, and Balkans, leading to the genesis of new peoples and polities across these regions.


  • Damascus, Syria
    13th Century BC

    The Kingdom of Aram-Damascus

    Damascus, Syria
    13th Century BC

    The Kingdom of Aram-Damascus was an Aramean state around Damascus in Syria, from the late 12th century BC to 732 BC.


  • Al-Hasakah, Syria
    1200s BC

    Bit Baḫiani was an independent Aramean city

    Al-Hasakah, Syria
    1200s BC

    Bit Baḫiani was an independent Aramean city-state kingdom (c. 1200 – 808 BC) with its capital at Guzana (modern day Tell Halaf).


  • Syria
    13th Century BC

    Aramean states

    Syria
    13th Century BC

    By the late 12th century BCE, the Arameans were firmly established in Syria; however, they were conquered by the Middle Assyrian Empire, as had been the Amorites and Ahlamu before them.


  • Syria
    1115 BC

    The first certain reference to the Arameans

    Syria
    1115 BC

    The first certain reference to the Arameans appears in an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I (1115–1077 BCE), which refers to subjugating the "Ahlamû-Arameans" (Ahlame Armaia). Shortly after, the Ahlamû disappear from Assyrian annals, to be replaced by the Arameans (Aramu, Arimi).


  • Zincirli Höyük, Gaziantep Province, Turkey
    12th Century BC

    The Arameans conquered Sam'al

    Zincirli Höyük, Gaziantep Province, Turkey
    12th Century BC

    The Arameans conquered Sam'al, also known as Yaudi, the region from Arpad to Aleppo, which they renamed Bît-Agushi, and Til Barsip, which became the chief town of Bît-Adini, also known as Beth Eden. North of Sam'al was the Aramean state of Bit-Gabbari, which was sandwiched between the Post-Hittite states of Carchemish, Gurgum, Khattina, Unqi, and the state of Tabal.


  • Hama, Syria
    12th Century BC

    King Tou was a king of Hamath

    Hama, Syria
    12th Century BC

    King Tou was the king of Hamath, an ancient city located in Syria.


  • Jerusalem District, Israel
    2nd Millenium BC

    Arameans conquered Sam'al

    Jerusalem District, Israel
    2nd Millenium BC

    During the 11th and the 10th centuries BCE, the Arameans conquered Sam'al (modern Zenjirli), also known as Yaudi, the region from Arpad to Aleppo.


  • Syria
    11th Century BC

    The Assyrian withdrawal allowed the Arameans and others to gain independence and take firm control of what was then Eber-Nari

    Syria
    11th Century BC

    The Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BCE), which had dominated the Near East and Asia Minor since the first half of the 14th century BCE, began to shrink rapidly after the death of Ashur-bel-kala, its last great ruler in 1056 BCE, and the Assyrian withdrawal allowed the Arameans and others to gain independence and take firm control of what was then Eber-Nari (and is today Syria) during the late 11th century BCE. It is from this point that the region was called Aramea.


  • Syria
    11th Century BC

    The Aramaeans concentrated in Northern Syria

    Syria
    11th Century BC

    "Northern Syria had been the homeland of the Aramaeans since the late second millennium B.C. Syriac-speaking people were the descendants of these Aramaeans.


  • Sharqat, Iraq
    1050s BC

    The rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire

    Sharqat, Iraq
    1050s BC

    Assyrian annals from the end of the Middle Assyrian Empire c. 1050 BCE and the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 911 BCE contain numerous descriptions of battles between Arameans and the Assyrian army.


  • Aleppo, Syria
    11th Century BC

    Bit Adini was one of the largest of the Aramaic kingdoms

    Aleppo, Syria
    11th Century BC

    Bit Adini, a city or region of Syria, called sometimes Bit Adini in Assyrian sources, was an Aramaean state that existed as an independent kingdom during the 10th and 9th centuries BC, with its capital at Til Barsib (now Tell Ahmar).


  • Hama, Syria
    11th Century BC

    Tabrimmon was an Aramaean king

    Hama, Syria
    11th Century BC

    Tabrimmon was an Aramaean king, but there is little known about him. According to the Bible, he is the son of Hezion and the father of Ben-Hadad I.


  • Syria
    11th Century BC

    The Aramaic language

    Syria
    11th Century BC

    The Aramaic language was adopted as the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE, and the native Assyrians and Babylonians began to make a gradual language shift towards Aramaic as the most common language of public life and administration.


  • Al-Hasakah, Syria
    950s BC

    Kapara was an Aramean king

    Al-Hasakah, Syria
    950s BC

    King Kapara was an Aramean king of Bit Bahiani, one of the Post-Hittite states, centered in Guzana (modern Tell Halaf, in northeastern Syria).


  • Syria
    10th Century BC

    Byzantine Empire gadually reconquered much of northern Syria

    Syria
    10th Century BC

    During the 10th century, the Byzantine Empire gradually reconquered much of northern Syria.


  • Syria
    911 BC

    The Aramean kingdoms was subjugated by the Neo Assyrian Empire

    Syria
    911 BC

    The Aramean kingdoms, like much of the Near East and Asia Minor, were subjugated by the Neo Assyrian Empire (911–605 BCE).


  • Nurdagi, Gaziantep, Turkey
    10th Century BC

    The Kilamuwa Stele

    Nurdagi, Gaziantep, Turkey
    10th Century BC

    The Kilamuwa Stele is a 9th-century BC stele of King Kilamuwa, from the Kingdom of Bit-Gabbari. He claims to have succeeded where his ancestors had failed, in providing for his kingdom. The inscription is known as KAI 24.


  • Hama, Syria
    10th Century BC

    Irhuleni was King of Hamath

    Hama, Syria
    10th Century BC

    Irhuleni was King of Hamath. He led a coalition against the Assyrian expansion under Shalmaneser III, alongside Hadadezer of Damascus.


  • Syria
    10th Century BC

    Old Aramaic

    Syria
    10th Century BC

    Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, known from the Aramaic inscriptions discovered since the 19th century.


  • Aleppo, Syria
    10th Century BC

    Arpad was capital of the Aramaean state of Bit Agusi

    Aleppo, Syria
    10th Century BC

    Arpad was an ancient Aramaean Syro-Hittite city located in north-western Syria, north of Aleppo. It became the capital of the Aramaean state of Bit Agusi established by Gusi of Yakhan in the 9th century BC.


  • Syria
    880s BC

    Ben-Hadad I was a king of Aram

    Syria
    880s BC

    Ben-Hadad I, son of Tabrimmon and grandson of Hezion, was king of Aram-Damascus between 885 BC and 865 BC.


  • Syria
    880s BC

    Tabrimmon was a king of Aram

    Syria
    880s BC

    Tabrimmon, also as Tabrimon, also as Tabremon in Douay–Rheims, was an Aramaean king, but there is little known about him.


  • Syria and State of Israel, State of Palestine and Jordan
    870s BC

    The Israelite–Aramean War

    Syria and State of Israel, State of Palestine and Jordan
    870s BC

    The Israelite–Aramean War was an armed conflict between the Israelites and the Arameans and Amorites that took place in the Levantine regions of Aram and Bashan. It is generally considered to have taken place around the year 874 BCE.


  • Syria
    865 BC

    Bar-Hadad II was a king of Aram

    Syria
    865 BC

    Bar-Hadad II was the king of Aram Damascus between 865 and 842 BC.


  • Qarqar, Hama, Syria
    853 BC

    Battle of Qarqar

    Qarqar, Hama, Syria
    853 BC

    The Battle of Qarqar was fought in 853 BCE when the army of the Neo-Assyrian Empire led by Emperor Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of eleven kings at Qarqar led by Hadadezer, called in Assyrian Adad-idir and possibly to be identified with King Benhadad II of Aram-Damascus; and Ahab, king of Israel.


  • Syria
    850s BC

    The old Aramaic period

    Syria
    850s BC

    The old Aramaic period (850 to 612 BC) saw the production and dispersal of inscriptions due to the rise of the Arameans as a major force in the Ancient Near East.


  • Syria
    842 BC

    Hazael was an Aramean king

    Syria
    842 BC

    Hazael was an Aramean king who is mentioned in the Bible. Under his reign, Aram-Damascus became an empire that ruled over large parts of Syria and the Land of Israel.


  • Syria
    830 BC

    Atarshumki I was a king of Aram

    Syria
    830 BC

    Atarshumki I was the King of Bit Agusi in ancient Syria; he was the son of Arames.


  • Damascus, Syria
    9th Century BC

    Rezin was the last king of Aram of Damascus

    Damascus, Syria
    9th Century BC

    King Rezin of Aram ruled from Damascus during the 8th century BC. During his reign, he was a tributary of King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria. He was the last king of Aram of Damascus.


  • Syria
    9th Century BC

    Hadad was a king of Aram

    Syria
    9th Century BC

    The "Hadad Statue" is an 8th-century BC stele of King Panamuwa I, from the Kingdom of Bit-Gabbari in Sam'al. It currently occupies a prominent position in the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin.


  • Hama, Syria
    785 BC

    Zakkur was the ancient king of Hamath

    Hama, Syria
    785 BC

    Zakkur was the ancient king of Hamath and Luhuti (also known as Nuhašše) in Syria. He ruled around 785 BC.


  • Syria
    773 BC

    Hezion was a king of Aram

    Syria
    773 BC

    Hezion was a king of Aram Damascus according to the genealogy given in the Books of Kings (1 Kings 15:18).


  • Syria
    769 BC

    Bar-Hadad III was a king of Aram

    Syria
    769 BC

    Bar-Hadad III was king of Aram Damascus, the son, and successor of Hazael. His succession is mentioned in 2 Kings (13:3, 13:24).


  • Syria
    754 BC

    King Rezin of Aram

    Syria
    754 BC

    King Rezin of Aram ruled from Damascus during the 8th century BC. During his reign, he was a tributary of King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria.


  • Iraq
    745 BC

    Tiglath-Pileser III was a king of Assyria

    Iraq
    745 BC

    Tiglath-Pileser III was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE) who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.


  • Aleppo, Syria
    740 BC

    Tiglath-pileser III occupied Arpad

    Aleppo, Syria
    740 BC

    The Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III, occupied Arpad (currently Tel Rifaat), the center of the Aramaic resistance in northern Syria in 740 BC.


  • Israel
    734 BC

    Tiglath-Pileser III occupied Samaria

    Israel
    734 BC

    Tiglath-Pileser III also overthrew the Kingdom of Samaria in 734 BC.


  • Damascus, Syria
    732 BC

    Tiglath-Pileser III occupied Damascus

    Damascus, Syria
    732 BC

    Tiglath-Pileser III occupied the Kingdom of Damascus in 732 BC.


  • Damascus, Syria
    732 BC

    Aram-Damascus fell and was conquered by the Assyrian

    Damascus, Syria
    732 BC

    In 732 BCE Aram-Damascus fell and was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III. The Assyrians named their Aramean colonies Eber Nari, whilst still using the term Aramean to describe many of its peoples.


  • Aleppo, Syria
    8th Century BC

    Atarshumki I was the King of Bit Agusi

    Aleppo, Syria
    8th Century BC

    Atarshumki I was the King of Bit Agusi in ancient Syria; he was the son of Arames. The capital of Bit Agusi was Arpad.


  • Aleppo, Syria
    8th Century BC

    The Neirab steles

    Aleppo, Syria
    8th Century BC

    The Neirab steles, a pair of 7th century BCE Aramaic inscriptions found in 1891 in Al-Nayrab near Aleppo, Syria.


  • Syria
    7th Century BC

    The Aramean regions became a battleground between the Babylonians and the Egyptian 26th Dynasty

    Syria
    7th Century BC

    The Aramean regions became a battleground between the Babylonians and the Egyptian 26th Dynasty, which had been installed by the Assyrians as vassals after they had conquered Egypt, ejected the previous Nubian dynasty, and destroyed the Kushite Empire.


  • Tikrit, Saladin, Iraq
    626 BC

    The Neo Assyrian Empire was descended

    Tikrit, Saladin, Iraq
    626 BC

    The Neo Assyrian Empire descended into a bitter series of brutal internal wars from 626 BCE, weakening it greatly.


  • Syria and Iraq
    612 BC

    Arameans under Neo-Babylonian rule

    Syria and Iraq
    612 BC

    Aramea/Eber-Nari was then ruled by the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire (612–539 BCE), initially headed by a short-lived Chaldean dynasty. The Aramean regions became a battleground between the Babylonians and the Egyptian 26th Dynasty, which had been installed by the Assyrians as vassals after they had conquered Egypt, ejected the previous Nubian dynasty, and destroyed the Kushite Empire.


  • Syria
    600s BC

    Aramaic is a Semitic language

    Syria
    600s BC

    Aramaic is a Semitic language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria.


  • Syria
    539 BC

    Arameans under Achaemenid rule

    Syria
    539 BC

    The Arameans were later conquered by the Achaemenid Empire (539–332 BCE). However, little changed from the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian times, as the Persians, seeing themselves as successors of previous empires, maintained Imperial Aramaic language as the main language of public life and administration.


  • Syria
    539 BC

    The Babylonians masters of the Aramean lands

    Syria
    539 BC

    The Babylonians remained masters of the Aramean lands only until 539 BCE.


  • Syria
    539 BC

    The Arameans was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire

    Syria
    539 BC

    The Arameans were later conquered by the Achaemenid Empire (539–332 BCE).


  • Syria
    530s BC

    The Babylonians remained masters of the Aramean lands

    Syria
    530s BC

    The Babylonians remained masters of the Aramean lands only until 539 BCE when the Persian Achaemenid Empire overthrew Nabonidus, the Assyrian born last king of Babylon.


  • Syria
    6th Century BC

    Arameans under Syrianization and Arabization

    Syria
    6th Century BC

    The first process (Syrianization) was initiated during the 5th century, when the ancient Greek custom of using Syrian labels for Arameans and their language, started to gain acceptance among Aramean literary and ecclesiastical elites.


  • Aswan, Egypt
    500 BC

    Story of Ahikar

    Aswan, Egypt
    500 BC

    The Story of Aḥiqar, also known as the Words of Aḥiqar, is a story first attested in Imperial Aramaic from the fifth century BCE on papyri from Elephantine, that circulated widely in the Middle and Near East. It has been characterized as "one of the earliest 'international books' of world literature".


  • Syria
    336 BC

    Arameans under Seleucid and Ptolemaic rule

    Syria
    336 BC

    Conquests of Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE) marked the beginning of a new era in the history of the entire Near East, including regions inhabited by Arameans.


  • Damascus, Syria
    332 BC

    Coele-Syria was a region of Syria in classical antiquity

    Damascus, Syria
    332 BC

    Coele-Syria was a region of Syria in classical antiquity. It probably derived from the Aramaic word for all of the regions of Syria, but it was most often applied to the Beqaa Valley between Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon mountain ranges.


  • Syria
    323 BC

    The conquests of Alexander the Great and their impact on the Armenians

    Syria
    323 BC

    The conquests of Alexander the Great marked the beginning of a new era in the history of the entire Near East, including regions inhabited by Arameans.


  • Baghdad, Iraq
    310s BC

    Two newly created Hellenistic states emerged as main pretenders for regional supremacy

    Baghdad, Iraq
    310s BC

    By the end of the 4th century BCE, two newly created Hellenistic states emerged as main pretenders for regional supremacy: the Seleucid Empire (305–64 BCE), and the Ptolemaic Empire (305–30 BCE).


  • Italy
    4th Century BC

    Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities

    Italy
    4th Century BC

    In the 4th Century BC, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities. This led to the loss of the northern Etruscan provinces. During the Roman–Etruscan Wars, Etruria was conquered by Rome in the 3rd century BC.


  • Syria
    2nd Century BC

    Arameans under Roman and Parthian rule

    Syria
    2nd Century BC

    After the establishment of Roman rule in the region of Syria proper (western of Euphrates) during the 1st century BCE, Aramean lands became the frontier region between two empires, Roman and Parthian, and later between their successor states, Byzantine and Sasanid empires. Several minor states also existed in frontier regions, the most notable of them being the Kingdom of Osroene, centered in the city of Edessa, known in the Aramaic language as Urhay.


  • Damascus, Syria
    2010s BC

    The establishment of Roman rule in the region of Syria

    Damascus, Syria
    2010s BC

    After the establishment of Roman rule in the region of Syria proper (western of Euphrates) during the 1st century BCE, Aramean lands became the frontier region between two empires, Roman and Parthian.


  • Syria
    20th Century

    Bible was translated into Aramaic

    Syria
    20th Century

    Between the 1st and the 3rd centuries AD, ancient Arameans adopted Christianity, thus replacing the old polytheistic Aramean religion. In the same tame, Christian Bible was translated into Aramaic.


  • Syria
    7th Century

    Christian Arameans assembled around local ecclesiastical institutions

    Syria
    7th Century

    Since the Arab conquest of the Near East in the 7th century, the remaining communities of Christian Arameans converged around local ecclesiastical institutions, that were by that time already divided along denominational lines.


  • Syria
    8th Century

    Arameans under Arab rule

    Syria
    8th Century

    Since the Arab conquest of the Near East in the 7th century, the remaining communities of Christian Arameans converged around local ecclesiastical institutions, that were by that time already divided along denominational lines.


  • Selçuk, Izmir, Turkey
    1084

    Arameans under Turkish rule

    Selçuk, Izmir, Turkey
    1084

    Aramean pushed back by the newly arrived Seljuk Turks, who took Antioch (1084). Later establishment of Crusader states (1098), the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa, created new challenges for local Aramaic-speaking Christians, both Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox.


  • France
    1704

    The first known Aramaic inscription

    France
    1704

    The first known Aramaic inscription was the Carpentras Stela, found in southern France in 1704; it was considered to be Phoenician text at the time.


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