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Bactria Map

26th Century BC to 10th Century


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Bactria was an ancient region in Central Asia. Bactria proper was north of the Hindu Kush mountain range and south of the Oxus river (modern Amu Darya), covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan. More broadly, Bactria was the area which was located north of the Hindu Kush, west of the Pamirs and south of the Tian Shan, covering modern-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as well, with the Amu Darya flowing west through the center. Bactria is mentioned in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great as one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire; it was a special satrapy and was ruled by a crown prince or an intended heir. Bactria was the center of Iranian resistance against the Macedonian invaders after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in the 4th century BCE.

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Also available in: Arabic