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  • Uzbekistan
    3220s BC

    Alexander conquered Sogdiana

    Uzbekistan
    3220s BC

    Alexander conquered Sogdiana. In the south, beyond the Oxus, he married Roxana, daughter of the defeated Satrap of Bactria, Oxyartes. He founded two Greek cities in Bactria, including his easternmost, Alexandria Eschate.




  • Indian subcontinent
    26th Century BC

    Bactria was the homeland of Indo-Iranians

    Indian subcontinent
    26th Century BC

    Bactria was the homeland of Indo-Iranians who moved south-west into Iran and the north-west of the Indian subcontinent around 2500–2000 BC.




  • Mary, Turkmenistan
    23rd Century BC

    The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex recently dated to c. 2250–1700 BC

    Mary, Turkmenistan
    23rd Century BC

    The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex or Oxus Civilisation, recently dated to c. 2250–1700 BC, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilization of Central Asia.




  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    23rd Century BC

    Bronze Age of the Bactria

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    23rd Century BC

    The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age archaeological culture of Central Asia, dated to c. 2200–1700 BC.




  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    2140 BC

    The legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    2140 BC

    The early Greek historian Ctesias, c. 400 BC, alleged that the legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king named Oxyartes in c. 2140 BC.




  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    21st Century BC

    Bactrians were the inhabitants of Bacteria

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    21st Century BC

    Bactrians were the inhabitants of Bactria. Several important trade routes from India and China passed through Bactria and, as early as the Bronze Age, this had allowed the accumulation of vast amounts of wealth by the mostly nomadic population. The first proto-urban civilization in the area arose during the 2nd millennium BCE.




  • Balkans
    7th Century BC

    Bactria belonged to the Medes (Achaemenid Empire)

    Balkans
    7th Century BC

    Ernst Herzfeld suggested that Bactria belonged to the Medes before its annexation to the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great in the sixth century BC.


  • Kermanshah, Iran
    520 BC

    The first mention of Bactria

    Kermanshah, Iran
    520 BC

    The first mention of Bactria comes in 520 BCE at the Behistun inscription.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    6th Century BC

    The Bactrians were conquered by the Persians

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    6th Century BC

    Control of these lucrative trade routes, however, attracted foreign interest, and in the 6th century BC, the Bactrians were conquered by the Persians.


  • Sughd, Tajikistan
    320s BC

    Alexander conquered Sogdiana

    Sughd, Tajikistan
    320s BC

    Alexander conquered Sogdiana. In the south, beyond the Oxus, he married Roxana, daughter of the defeated Satrap of Bactria, Oxyartes. He founded two Greek cities in Bactria, including his easternmost, Alexandria Eschate.


  • Takhar, Afghanistan
    323 BC

    Greek was the administrative language of Greco-Bactrian kingdoms

    Takhar, Afghanistan
    323 BC

    Following the conquest of Bactria by Alexander the Great in 323 BC, for about two centuries Greek was the administrative language of his Hellenistic successors, that is, the Seleucid and the Greco-Bactrian kingdoms.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    250s BC

    Diodotus I Soter was the first Greek king of Bactria

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    250s BC

    Diodotus I Soter was the first Greek king of Bactria.


  • Takhar, Afghanistan
    256 BC

    The Bactrian Kingdom "Greco-Bactrian Kingdom"

    Takhar, Afghanistan
    256 BC

    The Bactrian Kingdom was the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, in Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent from its founding in 256 BC by Diodotus I Soter to its fall under the reign of Heliocles II.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    250 BC

    Diodotus seceded from the Seleucid Empire

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    250 BC

    Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria founded the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom when he seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC and became King Diodotus I of Bactria.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    230 BC

    Euthydemus I was a Bactrian king

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    230 BC

    Euthydemus I was a Bactrian king and founder of the Euthydemid dynasty.


  • Punjab, Pakistan
    205 BC

    Indo-Greek Kingdom was founded in 200 BC

    Punjab, Pakistan
    205 BC

    The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius I invaded India from Bactria in 200 BC.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    3rd Century BC

    Daxia was the name of Bactria

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    3rd Century BC

    Daxia, Ta-Hsia, or Ta-Hia was the name given in antiquity by the Han Chinese to Tukhara or Tokhara the central part of Bactria. The name "Daxia" appears in Chinese from the 3rd century BCE to designate a little-known kingdom located somewhere west of China.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    200 BC

    Demetrius I was a Bactrian king

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    200 BC

    Demetrius I, also called Damaytra, was a Greco-Bactrian king (reigned c. 200–167 BCE), who ruled areas from Bactria to ancient northwestern India.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    190 BC

    Agathocles I Dikaios was a Bactrian king

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    190 BC

    Agathocles I Dikaios was a Bactrian king, who reigned between around 190 and 180 BC.


  • Samangan, Afghanistan
    170s BC

    Eucratides founded the city of Eukratidia

    Samangan, Afghanistan
    170s BC

    Eucratides founded the city of Eukratidia.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    171 BC

    Eucratides I was a Bactrian king

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    171 BC

    Eucratides I was one of the most important Graeco-Bactrian kings.


  • Punjab, Pakistan
    160s BC

    Menander I Soter was a Greco-Bactrian

    Punjab, Pakistan
    160s BC

    Menander I Soter was a Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek King (reigned c.165/155 –130 BC) who administered a large territory in the northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.


  • Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    The Greco-Bactrians were conquered by nomadic Indo-European tribes from the north

    Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    During the 2nd century BCE, the Greco-Bactrians were conquered by nomadic Indo-European tribes from the north, beginning with the Sakas (160 BCE).


  • Takhar, Afghanistan
    135 BC

    The Greco-Bactrians has been overrun by invading Yuezhi

    Takhar, Afghanistan
    135 BC

    The Greco-Bactrians, also known in Sanskrit as Yavanas, worked in cooperation with the native Bactrian aristocracy. By about 135 BCE, however, this kingdom had been overrun by invading Yuezhi tribes, an invasion that later brought about the rise of the powerful Kushan Empire.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    120s BC

    The Yuezhi had conquered Bactria

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    120s BC

    The Yuezhi had conquered Bactria by the time of the visit of the Chinese envoy Zhang Qian (circa 127 BC), who had been sent by the Han emperor to investigate lands to the west of China.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    110 BC

    Dikaios was the last Hellenistic King of Bactria

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    110 BC

    Heliocles or Heliokles II Dikaios was the last reigning Hellenistic King of Bactria.


  • North-west India
    2nd Century BC

    The Greco-Bactrians had created an impressive empire

    North-west India
    2nd Century BC

    By the early 2nd century BCE the Greco-Bactrians had created an impressive empire that stretched southwards to include north-west India.


  • Central Asia
    7th Century

    Islam ruled much of the Middle East and western areas of Central Asia

    Central Asia
    7th Century

    By the mid-7th century CE, Islam under the Rashidun Caliphate had come to rule much of the Middle East and western areas of Central Asia.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    7th Century

    Tokharistan is an ancient Early Middle Ages known as Bactria

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    7th Century

    Tokharistan is an ancient Early Middle Ages name given to the area which was known as Bactria in Ancient Greek sources.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    663

    The Umayyad Caliphate attacked the Buddhist Shahi

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    663

    In 663 CE, the Umayyad Caliphate attacked the Buddhist Shahi dynasty ruling in Tokharistan.


  • Balkh, Afghanistan
    8th Century

    Saman Khuda left Zoroastrianism for Islam

    Balkh, Afghanistan
    8th Century

    In the 8th century CE, a Persian from Balkh known as Saman Khuda left Zoroastrianism for Islam while living under the Umayyads.


  • Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan
    1976

    Viktor discovered the remains of a Bronze Age culture

    Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan
    1976

    Viktor Ivanovich Sarianidi discovered the remains of a Bronze Age culture in the Karakum Desert in 1976. The culture came to be known as the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex.


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