The Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku (c. 300–1100 AD), based around Lake Titicaca, and the Wari or Huari (c. 600–1100 AD) centered near the city of Ayacucho. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures.
The Inca people began as a tribe in the Cuzco area around the start of the 13th century. Under the leadership of Manco Cápac, they formed the small city-state of Cusco (Quechua Qosqo).
The Sapa Inca of the first dynasty of the Kingdom of Cusco were, in order, Manco Cápac, Sinchi Roca, Lloque Yupanqui, Mayta Cápac, and Cápac Yupanqui. Evidence of state organization dates from 1200 AD.
Manco Cápac, also known as Manco Inca and Ayar Manco was, according to some historians, the first governor and founder of the Inca civilization in Cusco, possibly in the early 13th century.
Sinchi Roca, Sinchi Rocca, Cinchi Roca (in Hispanicized spellings), Sinchi Ruq'a or Sinchi Ruq'a Inka (Quechua for "valorous generous Inca") was the second Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around 1230 CE, though as early as 1105 CE according to some) and a member of the Hurin dynasty (first dynasty).
Lloque Yupanqui was the third Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around CE 1260) and a member of the Hurin dynasty.
Mayta Cápac (Quechua Mayta Qhapaq Inka) was the fourth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around 1290 CE) and a member of the Hurin dynasty.
Cápac Yupanqui (Quechua Qhapaq Yupanki Inka, "splendid accountant Inca") was the fifth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around CE 1320) and the last of the Hurin dynasty.
The second dynasty was affiliated with the Hanan moiety and was founded under Inca Roca, the son of the last Hurin Sapa Inca, Cápac Yupanqui.
After Cápac Yupanqui's death, another of his sons, Inca Roca's half-brother Quispe Yupanqui, was intended to succeed him. However, the Hanan revolted and installed Inca Roca instead.
Inca Roca (Quechua Inka Roq'a, "magnanimous Inca") was the sixth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around CE 1350) and the first of the Hanan ("upper") Qusqu dynasty. His wife was Mama Michay, and his son was Yawar Waqaq.
Yawar Waqaq or "Yawar Waqaq Inka" was the seventh Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around CE 1380) and the second of the Hanan dynasty.
Viracocha (in Hispanicized spelling) or Wiraqucha (Quechua, the name of a god) was the eighth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around 1410) and the third of the Hanan dynasty.
In 1438 AD, under the command of the Sapa Inca (paramount leader) Pachacuti, the Incas began a far-reaching expansion.
The land which Pachacuti conquered was about the size of the Thirteen Colonies at the outbreak of the American Revolution of 1776 and consisted of nearly the entire territory of the Andes mountain range.
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire. Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.
Most archeologists believe that Machu Picchu was constructed as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Often mistakenly referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is the most familiar icon of Inca civilization. The Incas built the estate around 1450 but abandoned it a century later at the time of the Spanish conquest.
Traditionally the son of the Inca ruler led the army. Pachacuti's son Túpac Inca Yupanqui began conquests to the north in 1463 and continued them as Inca rulers after Pachacuti's death in 1471.
Túpac Inca's son Huayna Cápac added a small portion of land to the north in modern-day Ecuador. At its height, the Inca Empire included Peru, western and south-central Bolivia, southwest Ecuador and a large portion of what is today Chile, north of the Maule River. Traditional historiography claims the advance south halted after the Battle of the Maule where they met determined resistance from the Mapuche.
Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui translated as "noble Inca accountant," (c. 1441–c. 1493) was the tenth Sapa Inca (1471–93) of the Inca Empire, the fifth of the Hanan dynasty. His father was Pachacuti, and his son was Huayna Capac. Topa Inca belonged to the Qhapaq panaca (one of the clans of Inca nobles). His wife was his older sister, Mama Ocllo.
Huayna Capac was the third Sapan Inka of the Inca Empire, born in Tumipampa sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization. As other Sapa Inkas, Huayna Capac subjects commonly approached him adding epithets and titles when addressing him, commonly as Wayna Qhapaq Inka Sapa'lla Tukuy Llaqt'a Uya "Unique Sovereign Wayna Qhapaq Listener of All Peoples". His original name was Titu Kusi Wallpa. He was the successor to Tupaq Inka Yupanki.
The empire's push into the Amazon Basin near the Chinchipe River was stopped by the Shuar in 1527. The empire extended into the corners of Argentina and Colombia. However, most of the southern portion of the Inca empire, the portion denominated as Qullasuyu, was located in the Altiplano.
Huáscar Inca was Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire from 1527 to 1532. He succeeded his father, Huayna Capac, and his brother Ninan Cuyochi, both of whom died of smallpox while campaigning near Quito.
Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro and his brothers explored south from what is today Panama, reaching Inca territory.
It was clear that they had reached a wealthy land with prospects of a great treasure, and after another expedition in 1529 Pizarro traveled to Spain and received royal approval to conquer the region and be its viceroy.
This approval was received as detailed in the following quote: "In July 1529 the Queen of Spain signed a charter allowing Pizarro to conquer the Incas. Pizarro was named governor and captain of all conquests in Peru, or New Castile, as the Spanish now called the land."
The Inca Civil War, also known as the Inca Dynastic War, the Inca War of Succession, or, sometimes, the War of the Two Brothers, was fought between half-brothers Huáscar and Atahualpa, sons of Huayna Capac, over succession to the throne of the Inca Empire. The war followed Huayna Capac's death in 1527.
The first engagement between the Inca and the Spanish was the Battle of Puná, near present-day Guayaquil, Ecuador.
Pizarro then founded the city of Piura in July 1532.
Atahualpa (c. 1502 – 26 July 1533) was the last Inca Emperor. After defeating his brother, Atahualpa became very briefly the last Sapa Inca (sovereign emperor) of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) before the Spanish conquest ended his reign.
When the conquistadors returned to Peru in 1532, a war of succession between the sons of Sapa Inca Huayna Capac, Huáscar, and Atahualpa, and unrest among newly conquered territories weakened the empire. Perhaps more importantly, smallpox, influenza, typhus, and measles had spread from Central America.
Hernando de Soto was sent inland to explore the interior and returned with an invitation to meet the Inca, Atahualpa, who had defeated his brother in the civil war and was resting at Cajamarca with his army of 80,000 troops, that was at the moment armed only with hunting tools.
After this, the Spanish began their attack against the mostly unarmed Inca, captured Atahualpa as a hostage, and forced the Inca to collaborate.
Túpac Huallpa (or Huallpa Túpac) (1510-October 1533), original name Auqui Huallpa Túpac, was the first vassal Inca Emperor installed by the Spanish conquistadors, during the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire led by Francisco Pizarro.
Atahualpa offered the Spaniards enough gold to fill the room he was imprisoned in and twice that amount of silver. The Inca fulfilled this ransom, but Pizarro deceived them, refusing to release the Inca afterward.
During Atahualpa's imprisonment, Huáscar was assassinated elsewhere. The Spaniards maintained that this was at Atahualpa's orders; this was used as one of the charges against Atahualpa when the Spaniards finally executed him, in August 1533.
Manco Inca Yupanqui (c. 1515 – c. 1544) (Manqu Inka Yupanki in Quechua) was the founder and monarch (Sapa Inca) of the independent Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, although he was originally a puppet Inca Emperor installed by the Spaniards. He was also known as "Manco II" and "Manco Cápac II". He was one of the sons of Huayna Capac and a younger brother of Huascar.
The Battle of Vilcaconga was a battle during the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire from November 8–9, 1533. The Spanish won a convincing victory, suffering minimal casualties.
The Battle of Cusco was fought in November 1533 between the forces of Spanish Conquistadors and of the Incas.
The battle of Maraycalla was fought in 1534 between Spanish conquistadors and renegade forces of the Inca Empire, whose capital Cuzco had been taken by the Spaniards in November 1533. The Inca army was commanded by famous general Quizquiz.
The siege of Cusco (May 6, 1536 – March 1537) was the siege of the city of Cusco by the army of Sapa Inca Manco Inca Yupanqui against a garrison of Spanish conquistadors and Indian auxiliaries led by Hernando Pizarro in the hope to restore the Inca Empire (1438–1533). The siege lasted ten months and was ultimately unsuccessful.
Paullu Inca (1518–1549) was a puppet Sapa Inca installed by the Spaniards after the previous Sapa Inca, Manco Inca Yupanqui, rebelled against the Spanish and established the small Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba.
Sayri Túpac (c. 1535–1561) was an Inca ruler in Peru. He was the son of siblings Manco Inca Yupanqui and Cura Ocllo.
After the death of his mother in 1539 and of his father in 1544, both at the hands of Spanish conquerors, he became the ruler of the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba. He ruled until 1560.
Diego de Castro Titu Cusi Yupanqui (1529 – 1571) was an Inca ruler of Vilcabamba and the penultimate leader of the Neo-Inca State. He was a son of Manco Inca Yupanqui, He was crowned in 1563, after the death of his half-brother, Sayri Tupac. He ruled until his death in 1571, probably of pneumonia.
Túpac Amaru was the last legitimate Inca to rule (in the Vilcabamba region as the Neo-Inca State). With the death of his elder brother Titu Cosi, he ordered the execution of all Spanish people living in Vilcabamba and led an unsuccessful and poorly planned rebellion against the colonists. This resulted in his death and the end of Incan sovereignty, for Vilcabamba was occupied and the survivors enslaved.
In 1572 the last Inca stronghold was conquered and the last ruler, Túpac Amaru, Manco's son, was captured and executed. This ended resistance to the Spanish conquest under the political authority of the Inca state.