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  • Baghdad, Iraq
    9th Century

    The first Mamluks appearance

    Baghdad, Iraq
    9th Century

    Historians agree that an entrenched military class such as the Mamluks appeared to develop in Islamic societies beginning with the 9th-century Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad.




  • Baghdad, Iraq
    9th Century

    Mamluks were known as Ghilman or Ghulam

    Baghdad, Iraq
    9th Century

    Until the 1990s, it was widely believed that the earliest Mamluks were known as Ghilman or Ghulam. and were bought by the Abbasid caliphs, especially al-Mu'tasim (833–842).




  • Cairo, Egypt
    1174

    Mamluk regiments constituted the backbone of Egypt's military

    Cairo, Egypt
    1174

    Mamluk regiments constituted the backbone of Egypt's military under Ayyubid rule in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, beginning with Sultan Saladin (r. 1174–1193) who replaced the Fatimids' black African infantry with mamluks.




  • Delhi, India
    1206

    Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi)

    Delhi, India
    1206

    In 1206, the Mamluk commander of the Muslim forces in the Indian subcontinent, Qutb al-Din Aibak, proclaimed himself Sultan, creating the Mamluk Sultanate in Delhi which lasted until 1290.




  • Cairo, Egypt
    1240

    The last of the Ayyubid sultans

    Cairo, Egypt
    1240

    Sultan as-Salih Ayyub (r. 1240–1249), the last of the Ayyubid sultans, had acquired some 1,000 mamluks (some of them free-born) from Syria, Egypt, and the Arabian Peninsula.




  • Cairo, Egypt
    1240

    Salih promoted large numbers of his original and newly recruited Mamluks

    Cairo, Egypt
    1240

    As-Salih became sultan of Egypt in 1240, and, upon his accession to the Ayyubid throne, he manumitted and promoted large numbers of his original and newly recruited Mamluks on the condition that they remain in his service.




  • Cairo, Egypt
    1249

    Tensions between As-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub and the Mamluks

    Cairo, Egypt
    1249

    Tensions between As-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub and his mamluks came to a head later in 1249 when Louis IX of France's forces captured Damietta in their bid to conquer Egypt during the Seventh Crusade.


  • Damitta, Egypt
    1249

    Louis IX of France's forces captured Damietta

    Damitta, Egypt
    1249

    Louis IX of France's forces captured Damietta in their bid to conquer Egypt during the Seventh Crusade.


  • Mansoura, Egypt
    Friday Feb 11, 1250

    Prior to Turanshah's arrival at the front facing the French

    Mansoura, Egypt
    Friday Feb 11, 1250

    Prior to Turanshah's arrival at the front facing the French, the Bahriyyah, a junior regiment of the Salihiyyah commanded by Baibars al-Buduqdari, defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of al-Mansurah on 11 February 1250.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Feb 27, 1250

    The sultan Turanshah arrived in Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Feb 27, 1250

    On 27 February, Turanshah, as new sultan, arrived in Egypt from Hasankeyf (Turkish for "rock fortress"), where he had been Emir (Arabic for "Prince") of Hisn Kayfa (Arabic for "rock fortress").


  • Faraskour, Damietta, Egypt
    Wednesday Apr 6, 1250

    The Battle of Fariskur

    Faraskour, Damietta, Egypt
    Wednesday Apr 6, 1250

    The Egyptians followed them into the Battle of Fariskur where the Egyptians utterly destroyed the Crusaders on 6 April. King Louis IX and a few of his surviving nobles surrendered and were taken as prisoners, effectively ending the Seventh Crusade.


  • Faraskour, Damietta, Egypt
    Monday May 2, 1250

    Attempt Turanshah assassinated at his camp in Fariskur

    Faraskour, Damietta, Egypt
    Monday May 2, 1250

    On 2 May 1250, a group of disgruntled Salihi officers had Turanshah assassinated at his camp in Fariskur.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Jul, 1250

    Aybak was the first of the Mamluk sultans

    Cairo, Egypt
    Jul, 1250

    Izz al-Din Aybak was the first of the Mamluk sultans of Egypt in the Turkic Bahri line.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    Under Saladin, the power of the Mamluks increased

    Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    Under Saladin and the Ayyubids of Egypt, the power of the Mamluks increased and they claimed the sultanate in 1250. Regimes based on Mamluk power thrived in such Ottoman provinces as the Levant and Egypt until the 19th century.


  • Baghdad, Iraq
    1250s

    Shajar married the Mamluk commander, Aybak

    Baghdad, Iraq
    1250s

    Shajar al-Durr took control with Mamluk support and launched a counterattack against the French. Shajar married the Mamluk commander, Aybak.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    Many Mamluks were appointed

    Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    Many Mamluks were appointed or promoted to high positions throughout the empire, including army command. At first, their status was non-hereditary. Sons of Mamluks were prevented from following their father's role in life.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks

    Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    Bahriyya Mamluks era

    Cairo, Egypt
    1250

    The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382. They followed the Ayyubid dynasty, and were succeeded by a second Mamluk dynasty, the Burji dynasty.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1254

    Aybak had his Mu'izzi mamluks assassinate Aktay

    Cairo, Egypt
    1254

    In 1254, Aybak had his Mu'izzi mamluks assassinate Aktay in the Citadel of Cairo.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1256

    An-Nasir Yusuf dispatched a Bahri-led expedition to Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    1256

    In 1256, he dispatched a Bahri-led expedition to Egypt, but no battle occurred when Aybak met an-Nasir Yusuf's army.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Apr 10, 1257

    Aybak was assassinated

    Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Apr 10, 1257

    Aybak was assassinated on 10 April 1257, possibly on the orders of Shajar al-Durr, who was assassinated a week later. Their deaths left a relative power vacuum in Egypt, with Aybak's teenage son, al-Mansur Ali, as heir to the sultanate.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1257

    Al-Mansur Ali was the second Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Cairo, Egypt
    1257

    Al-Mansur Ali was the second of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic, or Bahri, line. Some historians, however, consider Shajar al-Durr as the first of the Mamluk Sultans.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Nov, 1259

    Qutuz was a military leader and the third Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Cairo, Egypt
    Nov, 1259

    Saif ad-Din Qutuz, was a military leader and the third of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic line. He reigned as Sultan for less than a year, from 1259 until his assassination in 1260.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1260

    Qutuz had Hulagu's envoys killed

    Cairo, Egypt
    1260

    After taking Damascus, Hulagu demanded that Qutuz surrender Egypt. Qutuz had Hulagu's envoys killed and, with Baibars' help, mobilized his troops.


  • Ayn Jalut
    Friday Sep 3, 1260

    Battle of Ain Jalut

    Ayn Jalut
    Friday Sep 3, 1260

    Battle was fought between the Bahri Mamluks of Egypt and the Mongol Empire on 3 September 1260. The battle ended in a Mongol rout and Kitbuqa's capture and execution. Afterward, the Mamluks proceeded to recapture Damascus and the other Syrian cities taken by the Mongols.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Oct 24, 1260

    Baibars was the fourth Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Oct 24, 1260

    Al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari was the fourth Mamluk sultan of Egypt in the Bahri dynasty, succeeding Qutuz. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France.


  • Acre, Israel
    Sunday Aug 26, 1263
    02:37:00 AM

    Baibars' troops attacked Acre

    Acre, Israel
    Sunday Aug 26, 1263

    Baibars' troops attacked Acre in 1263.


  • Dongola, Sudan
    1265

    The Mamluks launched an invasion of northern Makuria

    Dongola, Sudan
    1265

    In 1265, the Mamluks launched an invasion of northern Makuria, and forced the Nubian king to become a vassal of the Mamluks.


  • Arsuf, Israel
    1265

    Baibars launched expeditions in Arsuf

    Arsuf, Israel
    1265

    Baibars launched expeditions against the Crusader fortresses throughout Syria, capturing Arsuf in 1265.


  • Antakya, Turkey
    1268

    Baibars' troops attacked took Antioch

    Antakya, Turkey
    1268

    Baibars' troops attacked took Antioch in 1268.


  • Egypt
    Saturday Jul 3, 1277

    Al-Said Barakah was the fifth of the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt

    Egypt
    Saturday Jul 3, 1277

    Al-Said Barakah was a Mamluk Sultan who ruled from 1277 to 1279 after the death of his father Baibars. His mother was a daughter of Barka Khan, a former Khwarazmian amir.


  • Elbistan, Turkey
    1277

    Baibars launched an expedition against the Ilkhanids

    Elbistan, Turkey
    1277

    In 1277, Baibars launched an expedition against the Ilkhanids, routing them in Elbistan in Anatolia, before ultimately withdrawing to avoid overstretching their forces and risk being cut off from SyriaEarly Qalawuni period.


  • Egypt
    Aug, 1279

    Badr al-Din Solamish was the sixth Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Egypt
    Aug, 1279

    Badr al-Din Solamish was a Sultan of Egypt in 1279. Born in Cairo, he was the son of Baibars, a sultan of Kipchak origin.


  • Egypt
    Nov, 1279

    Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥ was the seventh of the Mamluk sultan

    Egypt
    Nov, 1279

    Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥ was the seventh Bahri Mamluk sultan; he ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.


  • Syria
    1281

    The Ilkhanids took advantage of the disarray of Baibars' succession

    Syria
    1281

    The Ilkhanids took advantage of the disarray of Baibars' succession by raiding Mamluk Syria, before launching a massive offensive against Syria in the autumn of 1281.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Nov 12, 1290

    Al-Malik al-Ashraf was the ninth Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Nov 12, 1290

    Al-Ashraf Salāh ad-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn was the eighth Mamluk sultan between November 1290 until his assassination in December 1293.


  • Egypt
    Dec, 1293

    Al-Malik an-Nasir was the ninth Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Egypt
    Dec, 1293

    Al-Malik an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun was the ninth Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt.


  • Egypt
    Dec, 1294

    Al-Malik al-Adil was the 10th Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Egypt
    Dec, 1294

    Al-Malik al-Adil Zayn-ad-Din Kitbugha Ben Abd-Allah al-Mansuri was the 10th Mamluk sultan of Egypt from December 1294 to November 1296.


  • Egypt
    Friday Dec 7, 1296

    Lachin was the 11th Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Egypt
    Friday Dec 7, 1296

    Lachin, full royal name al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1296 to 1299.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1301

    The Coptic decline in Egypt occurred under the Bahri sultans

    Cairo, Egypt
    1301

    There were several instances of Egyptian Muslim protests against the wealth of Coptic Christians and their employment with the state. In 1301, the government ordered the closure of all churches. Coptic bureaucrats would often be restored to their positions after the moment of tension passed.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Apr, 1309

    Al-Malik al-Muzaffar was the 12th Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk

    Cairo, Egypt
    Apr, 1309

    Baibars al-Jashankir , also known as Abu al-Fath , was the 12th Mamluk Sultan of Mamluk Egypt in 1309–1310.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Wednesday Jun 7, 1341

    Al-Malik al-Mansur was the Bahri Mamluk sultan in 1341

    Cairo, Egypt
    Wednesday Jun 7, 1341

    Al-Malik al-Mansur Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr, better known as al-Mansur Abu Bakr was the Bahri Mamluk sultan in 1341. He became sultan, the first of several sons of an-Nasir Muhammad to accede to the throne. However, his reign was short-lived.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Aug 5, 1341

    Al-Malik al-Ashraf was was the Mamluk sultan from August 1341

    Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Aug 5, 1341

    Al-Ashraf Ala'a ad-Din Kujuk ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun was the Mamluk sultan from August 1341 to January 1342.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Jan 21, 1342

    Al-Malik an-Nasir was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1342

    Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Jan 21, 1342

    An-Nasir Shihab ad-Din Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as an-Nasir Ahmad, was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt, ruling from January to June 1342.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Jun, 1342

    Al-Malik as-Salih was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt in June 1342

    Cairo, Egypt
    Jun, 1342

    As-Salih Imad ad-Din Abu'l Fida Isma'il, better known as as-Salih Isma'il, was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt between June 1342 and August 1345. He was the fourth son of an-Nasir Muhammad to succeed the latter as sultan.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Aug, 1345

    Al-Malik al-Kamil was the Mamluk sultan in August 1345

    Cairo, Egypt
    Aug, 1345

    Al-Kamil Sayf ad-Din Sha'ban ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as al-Kamil Sha'ban, was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt between August 1345 and January 1346. He was the fifth son of an-Nasir Muhammad.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Sep, 1346

    Al-Malik al-Muzaffar was the Bahri Mamluk sultan in September 1346

    Cairo, Egypt
    Sep, 1346

    Al-Muzaffar Sayf ad-Din Hajji ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as al-Muzaffar Hajji, was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt. He was also the sixth son of an-Nasir Muhammad.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1347

    Al-Malik an-Nasir was the Mamluk sultan in 1347

    Cairo, Egypt
    1347

    An-Nasir Badr ad-Din Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, and the seventh son of an-Nasir Muhammad to hold office, reigning twice in 1347–1351 and 1354–1361.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Aug 21, 1351

    Al-Malik as-Salih was the Mamluk sultan in 1351

    Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Aug 21, 1351

    As-Salih Salah ad-Din Salih ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as as-Salih Salih, was the Mamluk sultan in 1351–1354. He was the eighth son of Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Mar 17, 1361

    Al-Malik al-Mansur was the Mamluk sultan in 1361

    Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Mar 17, 1361

    Al-Mansur Salah ad-Din Muhammad ibn Hajji ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun (1347/48–1398), better known as al-Mansur Muhammad, was the Mamluk sultan in 1361–1363.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1363

    Al-Ashraf Sha'ban was a Mamluk sultan in 1363

    Cairo, Egypt
    1363

    Al-Ashraf Zayn ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Sha'ban ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as al-Ashraf Sha'ban or Sha'ban II, was a Mamluk sultan of the Bahri dynasty in 1363–1377. He was a grandson of Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad. He had two sons who succeeded him: al-Mansur Ali and as-Salih Hajji.


  • Damascus, Syria
    1374

    The Armenian Orthodox Church in Mamluk Sultanate era

    Damascus, Syria
    1374

    The Mamluks brought about a similar decline of the Armenian Orthodox Church after their capture of the Armenian Cilician Kingdom in 1374.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Mar 15, 1377

    Al-Mansur Ali II was the Mamluk sultan in 1377

    Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Mar 15, 1377

    Al-Mansur Ala' ad-Din Ali ibn Sha'ban ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun (1368 – 19 May 1381), better known as al-Mansur Ali II, was the Mamluk sultan reigning in 1377–1381.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1382

    As-Salih Hajji was the Mamluk sultan in 1382

    Cairo, Egypt
    1382

    Al-Salih Hajji , also Haji II, was a Mamluk ruler, and the last ruler of the Bahri dynasty in 1382. He briefly ruled again in 1389.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1382

    Barquq was the first Sultan of the Mamluk Burji dynasty of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    1382

    Al-Malik Az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq was born in Circassia. He was the first Sultan of the Mamluk Burji dynasty of Egypt. Barquq was of Circassian origin.


  • Sivas, Turkey
    1387

    The Mamluks were able to force the Anatolian entity

    Sivas, Turkey
    1387

    In 1387, the Mamluks were able to force the Anatolian entity in Sivas to become a Mamluk vassal state.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Jul, 1399

    An-Nasir Faraj was the second Sultan of the Burji dynasty of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and Syria

    Cairo, Egypt
    Jul, 1399

    Al-Nasir Faraj or Nasir-ad-Din Faraj also Faraj ibn Barquq was born in 1386 and succeeded his father Sayf-ad-Din Barquq as the second Sultan of the Burji dynasty of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt in July 1399.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    15th Century

    Mamluk rose to become sultan

    Cairo, Egypt
    15th Century

    Egypt was controlled by dynastic rulers, notably the Ikhshidids, Fatimids, and Ayyubids. thousands of Mamluk servants and guards continued to be used and even took high offices. Eventually, a Mamluk rose to become sultan.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1405

    An-Nasir Faraj was briefly a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1405

    Cairo, Egypt
    1405

    Izz ad-Din Abd al-Aziz was the younger brother of An-Nasir Faraj and the son of Barquq. He was briefly a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1405.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1406

    Al-Musta'in was the only Cairo-based caliph to hold political power as Sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    1406

    Al-Musta'in Billah was the tenth "shadow" caliph of Cairo, reigning under the tutelage of the Mamluk sultans from 1406 to 1414. He was the only Cairo-based caliph to hold political power as Sultan of Egypt.


  • Syria
    1412

    The Mamluk sultan an-Nasir Faraj regained control of Syria

    Syria
    1412

    The Mamluk sultan an-Nasir Faraj regained control of Syria. Frequently facing rebellions by local emirs, he was forced to abdicate in 1412.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Nov 6, 1412

    Al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1412

    Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Nov 6, 1412

    Al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 6 November 1412 to 13 January 1421.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Jan 13, 1421

    Al-Muzaffar Ahmad was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1421

    Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Jan 13, 1421

    Al-Muzaffar Ahmad was the son of Shaykh al-Mahmudi, and a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 13 January to 29 August 1421.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Wednesday Aug 29, 1421

    Sayf ad-Din Tatar was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1421

    Cairo, Egypt
    Wednesday Aug 29, 1421

    Sayf ad-Din Tatar was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 29 August to 30 November 1421.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Nov 30, 1421

    An-Nasir ad-Din Muhammad was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1421

    Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Nov 30, 1421

    An-Nasir ad-Din Muhammad was the son of Sayf ad-Din Tatar, and a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 30 November 1421 to 1 April 1422.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Monday Apr 1, 1422

    Barsbay was the ninth Burji Mamluk sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Monday Apr 1, 1422

    Al-Ashraf Sayf ad-Dīn Bārsbay was the ninth Burji Mamluk sultan of Egypt from AD 1422 to 1438. He was Circassian by birth and a former slave of the first Burji Sultan, Barquq.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Jun 7, 1438

    Al-Aziz Jamal ad-Din Yusuf was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1438

    Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Jun 7, 1438

    Al-Aziz Jamal ad-Din Yusuf was the son of Barsbay, and a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 7 June to 9 September 1438.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Sep 9, 1438

    Sayf ad-Din Jaqmaq was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1438

    Cairo, Egypt
    Sunday Sep 9, 1438

    Sayf ad-Din Jaqmaq was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 9 September 1438 to 1 February 1453.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Feb 1, 1453

    Al-Mansur Fakhr-ad-Din Uthman was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1453

    Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Feb 1, 1453

    Al-Malik al-Mansur Fakhr ad-Din Uthman ibn Jàqmaq, more simply known as Al-Mansur Uthman was Sultan of Cairo's Mamluk Burji dynasty (1453).


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Mar 15, 1453

    Sayf ad-Din Inal was the 13th Burji Mamluk sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Mar 15, 1453

    Al-Malik al-Ashraf Sayf al-Din Abu an-Nasr Inal al-'Ala'i az-Zahiri an-Nasiri al-Ajrud was the 13th Burji Mamluk sultan of Egypt, ruling between 1453–1461.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Feb 26, 1461

    Al-Mu'ayyad Shihab al-Din Ahmad was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1461

    Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Feb 26, 1461

    Al-Mu'ayyad Shihab al-Din Ahmad was the son of Sayf ad-Din Inal, and a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 26 February to 28 June 1461.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Jun 28, 1461

    Sayf ad-Din Khushqadam was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt and Syria

    Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Jun 28, 1461

    Al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Sayf al-Dīn Abū Saʿīd Khushqadam ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Nāṣirī l-Muʾayyadī was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt and Syria from 28 June 1461 to 9 October 1467. He was born in Cairo, Egypt.


  • Egypt
    Wednesday Oct 9, 1467

    Sayf ad-Din Bilbay was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1467

    Egypt
    Wednesday Oct 9, 1467

    Sayf ad-Din Bilbay or Yalbay was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 9 October to 4 December 1467.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Wednesday Dec 4, 1467

    Timurbugha was the seventeenth Burji Sultan of Mamluk Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Wednesday Dec 4, 1467

    Timurbugha was the seventeenth Burji Sultan of Mamluk Egypt, briefly ruling from late 1467 to early 1468 when he was deposed. He used the title of al-Malik al-Zāhir.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Jan 31, 1468

    Qaitbay was the eighteenth Burji Mamluk Sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Jan 31, 1468

    Sultan Abu Al-Nasr Sayf ad-Din Al-Ashraf Qaitbay was the eighteenth Burji Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from (1468–1496 C.E.).


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Aug 7, 1496

    An-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qaitbay was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Aug 7, 1496

    An-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qaitbay was the son of Qaitbay, and a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 7 August 1496 to 31 October 1498.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Monday Oct 31, 1498

    Abu Sa'id Qansuh was the twenty third Mamluk Sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Monday Oct 31, 1498

    Abu Sa'id Qansuh, also Qansuh Al-Ashrafi, Qansuh I or Al-Zahir Qansuh, was the twenty third Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from the Burji dynasty.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Jun 30, 1500

    Al-Ashraf Janbalat was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1500

    Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Jun 30, 1500

    Al-Ashraf Abu al-Nasir Janbalat was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 30 June 1500 to 25 January 1501.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Jan 25, 1501

    Tuman bay I was the twenty fifth Mamluk Sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Friday Jan 25, 1501

    Al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Tuman bay was the twenty fifth Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from the Burji dynasty. He ruled for about one hundred days in 1501.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Apr 20, 1501

    Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghuri was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans

    Cairo, Egypt
    Saturday Apr 20, 1501

    Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghuri or Qansuh II al-Ghawri was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans. One of the last and most powerful of the Burji dynasty, he reigned from 1501 to 1516.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1515

    The war which led to the conquest of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    1515

    In 1515, Selim began the war which led to the conquest of Egypt and its dependencies. Mamluk cavalry proved no match for the Ottoman artillery and Janissary infantry.


  • Syria
    Thursday Aug 24, 1516

    Syria passed into Ottoman possession

    Syria
    Thursday Aug 24, 1516

    On 24 August 1516, at the Battle of Marj Dabiq, al-Ghawri was killed. Syria passed into Ottoman possession, and the Ottomans were welcomed in many places as deliverance from the Mamluks.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Oct 17, 1516

    Tuman bay II was the last Sultan of Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Tuesday Oct 17, 1516

    Al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Tuman bay, better known as Tuman bay II, was the last Sultan of Egypt before the country's conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1517.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Jan 25, 1517

    The Mamluk Sultanate collapsed

    Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Jan 25, 1517

    On January 25, the Mamluk Sultanate collapsed.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Dec 20, 1517

    Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo

    Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Dec 20, 1517

    Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo on January 20, the center of power transferred then to Constantinople.


  • Baghdad, Iraq
    1747

    Iraq was ruled by Mamluk in 1747

    Baghdad, Iraq
    1747

    From 1747 to 1831 Iraq was ruled, with short intermissions, by Mamluk officers of Georgian origin.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1768

    Ali Bey Al-Kabir declared independence from the Ottomans

    Cairo, Egypt
    1768

    Ali Bey al-Kabir was a Mamluk leader in Egypt. In 1768. Ali Bey Al-Kabir declared independence from the Ottomans.


  • Acre, Israel
    1799

    Siege of Acre (1799)

    Acre, Israel
    1799

    The siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman city of Acre, As a result of the failed siege, Napoleon Bonaparte retreated two months later and withdrew to Egypt.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    1801

    After Napoleon

    Cairo, Egypt
    1801

    After the departure of French troops in 1801 the Mamluks continued their struggle for independence; this time against the Ottoman Empire and Great Britain.


  • Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Jan 3, 1811

    Mamluks End of power in Egypt

    Cairo, Egypt
    Thursday Jan 3, 1811

    On 1 March 1811, Muhammad Ali invited all of the leading Mamluks to his palace to celebrate the declaration of war against the Wahhabis in Arabia. Between 600 and 700 Mamluks paraded for this purpose in Cairo.


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