1250 to 1517
EgyptThe Mamluk Sultanate was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant and Hejaz that established itself as a caliphate. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamluk rule into two periods, one covering 1250–1382 (the "Baḥrī" period) and the other 1382–1517 (the "Burjī" period), named after the ruling dynasties of the respective eras. Modern sources also refer to the same divisions as the "Turkish" and "Circassian" periods to stress the change in the ethnic origins of most Mamluks.
Mamluk regiments constituted the backbone of Egypt's military under Ayyubid rule in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, beginning with Sultan Saladin (r. 1174–1193) who replaced the Fatimids' black African infantry with mamluks.
As-Salih became sultan of Egypt in 1240, and, upon his accession to the Ayyubid throne, he manumitted and promoted large numbers of his original and newly recruited Mamluks on the condition that they remain in his service.
Prior to Turanshah's arrival at the front facing the French, the Bahriyyah, a junior regiment of the Salihiyyah commanded by Baibars al-Buduqdari, defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of al-Mansurah on 11 February 1250.
The Egyptians followed them into the Battle of Fariskur where the Egyptians utterly destroyed the Crusaders on 6 April. King Louis IX and a few of his surviving nobles surrendered and were taken as prisoners, effectively ending the Seventh Crusade.
Battle was fought between the Bahri Mamluks of Egypt and the Mongol Empire on 3 September 1260. The battle ended in a Mongol rout and Kitbuqa's capture and execution. Afterward, the Mamluks proceeded to recapture Damascus and the other Syrian cities taken by the Mongols.
Al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari was the fourth Mamluk sultan of Egypt in the Bahri dynasty, succeeding Qutuz. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France.
There were several instances of Egyptian Muslim protests against the wealth of Coptic Christians and their employment with the state. In 1301, the government ordered the closure of all churches. Coptic bureaucrats would often be restored to their positions after the moment of tension passed.
Al-Malik al-Mansur Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr, better known as al-Mansur Abu Bakr was the Bahri Mamluk sultan in 1341. He became sultan, the first of several sons of an-Nasir Muhammad to accede to the throne. However, his reign was short-lived.
As-Salih Imad ad-Din Abu'l Fida Isma'il, better known as as-Salih Isma'il, was the Bahri Mamluk sultan of Egypt between June 1342 and August 1345. He was the fourth son of an-Nasir Muhammad to succeed the latter as sultan.
Al-Ashraf Zayn ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Sha'ban ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Qalawun, better known as al-Ashraf Sha'ban or Sha'ban II, was a Mamluk sultan of the Bahri dynasty in 1363–1377. He was a grandson of Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad. He had two sons who succeeded him: al-Mansur Ali and as-Salih Hajji.
Al-Nasir Faraj or Nasir-ad-Din Faraj also Faraj ibn Barquq was born in 1386 and succeeded his father Sayf-ad-Din Barquq as the second Sultan of the Burji dynasty of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt in July 1399.
Al-Musta'in Billah was the tenth "shadow" caliph of Cairo, reigning under the tutelage of the Mamluk sultans from 1406 to 1414. He was the only Cairo-based caliph to hold political power as Sultan of Egypt.