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  • Turkey
    1250s

    Anatolian Beyliks

    Turkey
    1250s

    As the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived.




  • Turkey
    Thursday Jul 27, 1302

    Battle of Bapheus

    Turkey
    Thursday Jul 27, 1302

    Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River. A Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302 contributed to Osman's rise as well. It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbors, due to the lack of sources surviving from this period.




  • Bursa, Ottoman Empire
    1326

    Orhan captured Bursa

    Bursa, Ottoman Empire
    1326

    Osman's son, Orhan, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326, making it the new capital of the Ottoman state and supplanting Byzantine control in the region.




  • Thessaloniki
    1387

    Thessaloniki was captured by the Venetians

    Thessaloniki
    1387

    The important port city of Thessaloniki was captured by the Venetians in 1387 and sacked.




  • Kosovo
    Monday Jun 15, 1389

    Battle of Kosovo

    Kosovo
    Monday Jun 15, 1389

    The Ottoman victory in Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe.




  • Nicopolis, Ottoman Empire
    Sunday Sep 25, 1396

    Battle of Nicopolis

    Nicopolis, Ottoman Empire
    Sunday Sep 25, 1396

    The Battle of Nicopolis for the Bulgarian Tsardom of Vidin in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottoman Turks.




  • Byzantine Empire
    1402

    Byzantines were temporarily relieved when the Turco-Mongol leader Timur

    Byzantine Empire
    1402

    In 1402, the Byzantines were temporarily relieved when the Turco-Mongol leader Timur, founder of the Timurid Empire, invaded Ottoman Anatolia from the east.


  • Ankara, Ottoman Empire
    Tuesday Jul 20, 1402

    Battle of Ankara

    Ankara, Ottoman Empire
    Tuesday Jul 20, 1402

    In the Battle of Ankara in 1402, Timur defeated the Ottoman forces and took Bayezid I as a prisoner, throwing the empire into disorder.


  • Anatolia, and Balkans
    Tuesday Jul 20, 1402

    Ottoman Interregnum

    Anatolia, and Balkans
    Tuesday Jul 20, 1402

    The ensuing civil war, also known as the Fetret Devri, lasted from 1402 to 1413 as Bayezid's sons fought over succession. It ended when Mehmed I emerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power.


  • Varna, Bulgaria
    Sunday Nov 10, 1444

    Battle of Varna

    Varna, Bulgaria
    Sunday Nov 10, 1444

    On 10 November 1444, Murad II repelled the Crusade of Varna by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist.


  • Kosovo
    Tuesday Oct 17, 1448

    Second Battle of Kosovo

    Kosovo
    Tuesday Oct 17, 1448

    Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army of Hungarian and Wallachian forces to attack the Turks but was again defeated at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448.


  • Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
    Sunday May 29, 1453

    Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople

    Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
    Sunday May 29, 1453

    The son of Murad II, Mehmed the Conqueror, reorganized both state and military, and on 29 May 1453 conquered Constantinople, ending the Byzantine Empire. Mehmed allowed the Eastern Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority.


  • Chaldoran County, Iran
    Sunday Aug 23, 1514

    Battle of Chaldiran

    Chaldoran County, Iran
    Sunday Aug 23, 1514

    Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) dramatically expanded the Empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating Shah Ismail of Safavid Iran, in the Battle of Chaldiran.


  • Egypt
    Jan, 1517

    Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt

    Egypt
    Jan, 1517

    Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt by defeating and annexing the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and created a naval presence on the Red Sea.


  • Belgrade
    1521

    Suleiman the Magnificent captured Belgrade

    Belgrade
    1521

    Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) captured Belgrade in 1521.


  • Mohács, Hungary
    Sunday Aug 29, 1526

    Battle of Mohács

    Mohács, Hungary
    Sunday Aug 29, 1526

    Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary as part of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars, and, after his historic victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, he established Ottoman rule in the territory of present-day Hungary (except the western part) and other Central European territories.


  • Vienna
    Friday Sep 27, 1529

    Suleiman the Magnificent failed to take Vienna

    Vienna
    Friday Sep 27, 1529

    Suleiman the Magnificent then laid siege to Vienna in 1529 but failed to take the city.


  • Austria, and Hungary
    Friday Aug 5, 1532

    Siege of Güns

    Austria, and Hungary
    Friday Aug 5, 1532

    In 1532, Suleiman the Magnificent made another attack on Vienna but was repulsed in the Siege of Güns.


  • Baghdad
    1530s

    Ottomans took Baghdad

    Baghdad
    1530s

    In the east, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians in the 1530s, gaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf.


  • Herceg Novi, Montenegro
    Jul, 1539

    Siege of Castelnuovo

    Herceg Novi, Montenegro
    Jul, 1539

    In 1539, a 60,000-strong Ottoman army besieged the Spanish garrison of Castelnuovo on the Adriatic coast; the successful siege cost the Ottomans 8,000 casualties, but Venice agreed to terms in 1540, surrendering most of its empire in the Aegean and the Morea. France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule, became strong allies.


  • France
    1540s

    Joint Venture

    France
    1540s

    The French conquests of Nice (1543) and Corsica (1553) occurred as a joint venture between the forces of the French king Francis I and Suleiman, and were commanded by the Ottoman admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis.


  • Esztergom, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 25, 1543

    Siege of Esztergom

    Esztergom, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 25, 1543

    A month before the siege of Nice, France supported the Ottomans with an artillery unit during the 1543 Ottoman conquest of Esztergom in northern Hungary. After further advances by the Turks, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognized Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547.


  • Caucasus
    1555

    Caucasus became officially partitioned for the first time between the Safavids and the Ottomans

    Caucasus
    1555

    In 1555, the Caucasus became officially partitioned for the first time between the Safavids and the Ottomans, a status quo that would remain until the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). By this partitioning of the Caucasus as signed in the Peace of Amasya, Western Armenia, western Kurdistan, and Western Georgia (incl. western Samtskhe) fell into Ottoman hands, while southern Dagestan, Eastern Armenia, Eastern Georgia, and Azerbaijan remained Persian.


  • Malta
    Tuesday May 18, 1565

    Great Siege of Malta

    Malta
    Tuesday May 18, 1565

    It was startling, if mostly symbolic, blow to the image of Ottoman invincibility, an image which the victory of the Knights of Malta against the Ottoman invaders in the 1565 Siege of Malta had recently set about eroding.


  • Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary
    Tuesday Sep 6, 1566

    Suleiman I died

    Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary
    Tuesday Sep 6, 1566

    Suleiman I died of natural causes in his tent during the Siege of Szigetvár in 1566.


  • Cyprus
    Wednesday Jul 22, 1570

    Ottomans decided to conquer Venetian Cyprus

    Cyprus
    Wednesday Jul 22, 1570

    The Ottomans decided to conquer Venetian Cyprus and on 22 July 1570, Nicosia was besieged; 50,000 Christians died, and 180,000 were enslaved.


  • Famagusta, Cyprus
    Thursday Aug 5, 1571

    Fall of Famagusta

    Famagusta, Cyprus
    Thursday Aug 5, 1571

    On 17 September 1570, the Ottoman cavalry appeared before the last Venetian stronghold in Cyprus, Famagusta. The Venetian defenders would hold out for 11 months against a force that would come to number 200,000 men with 145 cannons; 163,000 cannonballs struck the walls of Famagusta before it fell to the Ottomans in August 1571. The Siege of Famagusta claimed 50,000 Ottoman casualties.


  • Moscow, Russia
    1571

    Fire of Moscow (1571)

    Moscow, Russia
    1571

    In 1571, the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray, commanded by the Ottomans, burned Moscow.


  • Gulf of Patras, Ionian Sea
    Thursday Oct 7, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    Gulf of Patras, Ionian Sea
    Thursday Oct 7, 1571

    Meanwhile, the Holy league consisting of mostly Spanish and Venetian fleets won a victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto (1571), off southwestern Greece; Catholic forces killed over 30,000 Turks and destroyed 200 of their ships.


  • Molodi, Russia
    1572

    Battle of Molodi

    Molodi, Russia
    1572

    The next year, the invasion was repeated but repelled at the Battle of Molodi. The Ottoman Empire continued to invade Eastern Europe in a series of slave raids and remained a significant power in Eastern Europe until the end of the 17th century.


  • Ottoman Empire
    Tuesday Nov 20, 1612

    Treaty of Nasuh Pasha

    Ottoman Empire
    Tuesday Nov 20, 1612

    In spite of these problems, the Ottoman state remained strong, and its army did not collapse or suffer crushing defeats. The only exceptions were campaigns against the Safavid dynasty of Persia, where many of the Ottoman eastern provinces were lost, some permanently. This 1603–1618 war eventually resulted in the Treaty of Nasuh Pasha, which ceded the entire Caucasus, except westernmost Georgia, back into Iranian Safavid possession.


  • Ottoman Empire
    Tuesday May 17, 1639

    Treaty of Zuhab

    Ottoman Empire
    Tuesday May 17, 1639

    The resulting Treaty of Zuhab of that same year decisively divided the Caucasus and adjacent regions between the two neighboring empires (Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire) as it had already been defined in the 1555 Peace of Amasya.


  • Iraq
    1639

    Murad IV recaptured Iraq

    Iraq
    1639

    During his brief majority reign, Murad IV (1623–1640) reasserted central authority and recaptured Iraq (1639) from the Safavids.


  • Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
    Saturday Sep 2, 1651

    Kösem's murder

    Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
    Saturday Sep 2, 1651

    The Sultanate of Women (1533–1656) was a period in which the mothers of young sultans exercised power on behalf of their sons. The most prominent women of this period were Kösem Sultan and her daughter-in-law Turhan Hatice, whose political rivalry culminated in Kösem's murder in 1651.


  • Vienna
    Sunday Sep 12, 1683

    Battle of Vienna

    Vienna
    Sunday Sep 12, 1683

    This period of renewed assertiveness came to a calamitous end in 1683 when Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha led a huge army to attempt a second Ottoman siege of Vienna in the Great Turkish War of 1683–1699. The final assault being fatally delayed, the Ottoman forces were swept away by allied Habsburg, German, and Polish forces spearheaded by the Polish king John III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna.


  • Zenta (in modern Serbia)
    Wednesday Sep 11, 1697

    Defeat at Zenta

    Zenta (in modern Serbia)
    Wednesday Sep 11, 1697

    Mustafa II (1695–1703) led the counterattack of 1695–1696 against the Habsburgs in Hungary but was undone at the disastrous defeat at Zenta (in modern Serbia), 11 September 1697.


  • Karlowitz, Military Frontier, Habsburg Monarchy
    Monday Jan 26, 1699

    Treaty of Karlowitz

    Karlowitz, Military Frontier, Habsburg Monarchy
    Monday Jan 26, 1699

    The alliance of the Holy League pressed home the advantage of the defeat at Vienna, culminating in the Treaty of Karlowitz (26 January 1699), which ended the Great Turkish War. The Ottomans surrendered control of significant territories, many permanently.


  • Poltava (Present-Day in Ukraine)
    Monday Jul 8, 1709

    Battle of Poltava

    Poltava (Present-Day in Ukraine)
    Monday Jul 8, 1709

    Accordingly, King Charles XII of Sweden was welcomed as an ally in the Ottoman Empire following his defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava of 1709 in central Ukraine (part of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721).


  • Passarowitz, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia "Požarevac, Serbia"
    Thursday Jul 21, 1718

    Treaty of Passarowitz

    Passarowitz, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia "Požarevac, Serbia"
    Thursday Jul 21, 1718

    After the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–1718, the Treaty of Passarowitz confirmed the loss of the Banat, Serbia, and "Little Walachia" (Oltenia) to Austria. The Treaty also revealed that the Ottoman Empire was on the defensive and unlikely to present any further aggression in Europe.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1726

    Efficiency of the printing press

    Ottoman Empire
    1726

    In 1726, Ibrahim Muteferrika convinced the Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, the Grand Mufti, and the clergy on the efficiency of the printing press, and Muteferrika was later granted by Sultan Ahmed III permission to publish non-religious books (despite opposition from some calligraphers and religious leaders).


  • Oran (Present-Day in Algeria)
    Jun, 1732

    Spain conquered Oran

    Oran (Present-Day in Algeria)
    Jun, 1732

    In Ottoman North Africa, Spain conquered Oran from the Ottoman Empire (1732). The bey received an Ottoman army from Algiers, but it failed to recapture Oran; the siege caused the deaths of 1,500 Spaniards and even more Algerians.


  • Belgrade, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia
    Friday Sep 18, 1739

    Treaty of Belgrade

    Belgrade, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia
    Friday Sep 18, 1739

    The Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739), which was ended by the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739, resulted in the Ottoman recovery of northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia, and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar; but the Empire lost the port of Azov, north of the Crimean Peninsula, to the Russians. After this treaty, the Ottoman Empire was able to enjoy a generation of peace, as Austria and Russia were forced to deal with the rise of Prussia.


  • Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
    1773

    Istanbul Technical University

    Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
    1773

    Educational and technological reforms came about, including the establishment of higher education institutions such as the Istanbul Technical University.


  • Kaynardzha (Present-Day in Bulgaria)
    Thursday Jul 21, 1774

    Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca

    Kaynardzha (Present-Day in Bulgaria)
    Thursday Jul 21, 1774

    This action (Battle of Balta) provoked the Ottoman Empire into the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca of 1774 ended the war and provided freedom of worship for the Christian citizens of the Ottoman-controlled provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia.


  • Present-Day Balta, Ukraine
    1786

    Ukrainian Haidamakas entered Balta

    Present-Day Balta, Ukraine
    1786

    In 1768 Russian-backed Ukrainian Haidamakas, pursuing Polish confederates, entered Balta, an Ottoman-controlled town on the border of Bessarabia in Ukraine, massacred its citizens, and burned the town to the ground. This action provoked the Ottoman Empire into the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1800s

    Selim III made the first major attempts to modernize the army

    Ottoman Empire
    1800s

    Selim III (1789–1807) made the first major attempts to modernize the army, but his reforms were hampered by the religious leadership and the Janissary corps. Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, the Janissary revolted. Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II, who eliminated the Janissary corps in 1826.


  • Serbia
    1804

    Serbian Revolution

    Serbia
    1804

    The Serbian revolution (1804–1815) marked the beginning of an era of national awakening in the Balkans during the Eastern Question.


  • Saudi Arabia
    1811

    Al-Saud family revolted against the Ottomans

    Saudi Arabia
    1811

    In 1811, the fundamentalist Wahhabis of Arabia, led by the al-Saud family, revolted against the Ottomans. Unable to defeat the Wahhabi rebels, the Sublime Porte had Muhammad Ali Pasha of Kavala, the vali (governor) of the Eyalet of Egypt, tasked with retaking Arabia, which ended with the destruction of the Emirate of Diriyah in 1818. The suzerainty of Serbia as a hereditary monarchy under its own dynasty was acknowledged de jure in 1830.


  • Greece
    1821

    Greeks declared war on the Sultan

    Greece
    1821

    In 1821, the Greeks declared war on the Sultan. A rebellion that originated in Moldavia as a diversion was followed by the main revolution in the Peloponnese, which, along with the northern part of the Gulf of Corinth, became the first part of the Ottoman Empire to achieve independence (in 1829).


  • Algeria
    1830

    French invaded Ottoman Algeria

    Algeria
    1830

    In 1830, the French invaded Ottoman Algeria.


  • Egypt
    1831

    Muhammad Ali Pasha revolted against Sultan Mahmud II

    Egypt
    1831

    In 1831, Muhammad Ali Pasha revolted against Sultan Mahmud II due to the latter's refusal to grant him the governorships of Greater Syria and Crete, which the Sultan had promised him in exchange for sending military assistance to put down the Greek revolt (1821–1829) that ultimately ended with the formal independence of Greece in 1830.


  • Ottoman Empire
    Sep, 1832

    320 km from the capital, Constantinople

    Ottoman Empire
    Sep, 1832

    Thus began the first Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833), during which the French-trained army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, under the command of his son Ibrahim Pasha, defeated the Ottoman Army as it marched into Anatolia with a great victory, reaching the city of Kütahya within 320 km (200 mi) of the capital, Constantinople.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1833

    Begging for help

    Ottoman Empire
    1833

    In desperation, the defeated Sultan Mahmud II appealed to the empire's traditional arch-rival Russia for help, asking Emperor Nicholas I to send an expeditionary force to assist him and to save his reign. In return for signing the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi, the Russians sent the expeditionary force which deterred Ibrahim Pasha from marching any further towards Constantinople.


  • Kütahya, Ottoman Empire
    Sunday May 5, 1833

    Convention of Kütahya

    Kütahya, Ottoman Empire
    Sunday May 5, 1833

    Under the terms of the Convention of Kütahya, signed on 5 May 1833, Muhammad Ali Pasha agreed to abandon his campaign against the Sultan, in exchange for which he was made the vali (governor) of the vilayets (provinces) of Crete, Aleppo, Tripoli, Damascus and Sidon (the latter four comprising modern Syria and Lebanon), and given the right to collect taxes in Adana.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1839

    Sublime Porte attempted to take back what it lost to the de facto autonomous

    Ottoman Empire
    1839

    In 1839, the Sublime Porte attempted to take back what it lost to the de facto autonomous, but de jure still Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt, but its forces were initially defeated, which led to the Oriental Crisis of 1840. Muhammad Ali Pasha had close relations with France, and the prospect of him becoming the Sultan of Egypt was widely viewed as putting the entire Levant into the French sphere of influence.


  • Present-Day Lebanon
    1839

    Second Egyptian–Ottoman War

    Present-Day Lebanon
    1839

    Sublime Porte had proved itself incapable of defeating Muhammad Ali Pasha, the British Empire and Austrian Empire provided military assistance, and the second Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–1841) ended with Ottoman victory and the restoration of Ottoman suzerainty over Egypt Eyalet and the Levant.


  • Ottoman Empire
    19th Century

    Sick man of Europe

    Ottoman Empire
    19th Century

    By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man of Europe". Three suzerain states – the Principality of Serbia, Wallachia, and Moldavia – moved towards de jure independence during the 1860s and 1870s.


  • Ottoman Empire
    Oct, 1853

    Foreign Loans

    Ottoman Empire
    Oct, 1853

    The Crimean War (1853–1856) was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. The financial burden of the war led the Ottoman state to issue foreign loans amounting to 5 million pounds sterling on 4 August 1854.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1875

    Bankruptcy declaration

    Ottoman Empire
    1875

    The Ottoman state, which had begun taking on debt with the Crimean War, was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1875.


  • Bulgaria
    Apr, 1876

    Massacring up to 100,000 people

    Bulgaria
    Apr, 1876

    The Ottoman bashi-bazouks brutally suppressed the Bulgarian uprising of 1876, massacring up to 100,000 people in the process.


  • Balkans, and Caucasus
    Sunday Mar 3, 1878

    Lost the Russo-Turkish War

    Balkans, and Caucasus
    Sunday Mar 3, 1878

    The Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) ended with a decisive victory for Russia. As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply: Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire; Romania achieved full independence, and Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence, but with smaller territories.


  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
    1878

    Austria-Hungary unilaterally occupied the Ottoman provinces

    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    1878

    In 1878, Austria-Hungary unilaterally occupied the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Novi Pazar.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1881

    Ottoman Public Debt Administration

    Ottoman Empire
    1881

    By 1881, the Ottoman Empire agreed to have its debt controlled by an institution known as the Ottoman Public Debt Administration, a council of European men with a presidency alternating between France and Britain. The body controlled swaths of the Ottoman economy and used its position to ensure that European capital continued to penetrate the empire, often to the detriment of local Ottoman interests.


  • Egypt
    1882

    Coward Damned

    Egypt
    1882

    Britain later sent troops to Egypt in 1882 to put down the Urabi Revolt – Sultan Abdul Hamid II was too paranoid to mobilize his own army, fearing this would result in a coup d'état – effectively gaining control in both territories. Abdul Hamid II, popularly known as "Abdul Hamid the Damned" on account of his cruelty and paranoia, was so fearful of the threat of a coup that he did not allow his army to conduct war games, lest this serves as the cover for a coup, but he did see the need for military mobilization.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1883

    Goltz generation

    Ottoman Empire
    1883

    In 1883, a German military mission under General Baron Colmar von der Goltz arrived to train the Ottoman Army, leading to the so-called "Goltz generation" of German-trained officers who were to play a notable role in the politics of the last years of the empire.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1894

    Hamidian massacres

    Ottoman Empire
    1894

    From 1894 to 1896, between 100,000 and 300,000 Armenians living throughout the empire were killed in what became known as the Hamidian massacres.


  • Ottoman Empire
    Jul, 1908

    Young Turk Revolution

    Ottoman Empire
    Jul, 1908

    The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) was a constitutionalist revolution in the Ottoman Empire. The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), an organization of the Young Turks movement, forced Sultan Abdulhamid II to restore the Ottoman Constitution and recall the parliament, which ushered in multi-party politics within the Empire.


  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
    1908

    Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    1908

    Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908.


  • Ottoman Empire
    1915

    Armenian genocide

    Ottoman Empire
    1915

    In 1915 the Ottoman government and Kurdish tribes in the region started the extermination of its ethnic Armenian population, resulting in the death of up to 1.5 million Armenians in the Armenian genocide.


  • Arabian Peninsula, Ottoman Empire
    Saturday Jun 10, 1916

    Arab Revolt

    Arabian Peninsula, Ottoman Empire
    Saturday Jun 10, 1916

    The Arab Revolt began in 1916 with British support. It turned the tide against the Ottomans on the Middle Eastern front, where they seemed to have the upper hand during the first two years of the war. On the basis of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, an agreement between the British government and Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, the revolt was officially initiated at Mecca on 10 June 1916.


  • Lemnos, Greece
    Wednesday Oct 30, 1918

    Armistice of Mudros

    Lemnos, Greece
    Wednesday Oct 30, 1918

    Defeated on every front, the Ottoman Empire signed the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918.


  • Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
    Wednesday Oct 30, 1918

    Constantinople was occupied

    Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
    Wednesday Oct 30, 1918

    Constantinople was occupied by combined British, French, Italian, and Greek forces.


  • Ottoman Empire
    Monday May 19, 1919

    Turkish War of Independence

    Ottoman Empire
    Monday May 19, 1919

    There arose a nationalist opposition in the Turkish national movement. It won the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (later given the surname "Atatürk").


  • Ottoman Empire
    Wednesday Nov 1, 1922

    Sultanate was abolished

    Ottoman Empire
    Wednesday Nov 1, 1922

    The sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922.


  • Malta
    Friday Nov 17, 1922

    Last Sultan left the country

    Malta
    Friday Nov 17, 1922

    Last Sultan, Mehmed VI (reigned 1918–1922), left the country on 17 November 1922.


  • Turkey
    Monday Oct 29, 1923

    Republic of Turkey was established

    Turkey
    Monday Oct 29, 1923

    The Republic of Turkey was established in its place on 29 October 1923, in the new capital city of Ankara.


  • Sèvres, France
    Wednesday Sep 15, 2021
    01:45:00 PM

    Treaty of Sèvres

    Sèvres, France
    Wednesday Sep 15, 2021

    The partition of the Ottoman Empire was finalized under the terms of the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. This treaty, as designed in the Conference of London, allowed the Sultan to retain his position and title. The status of Anatolia was problematic given the occupied forces.


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