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  • Greece
    336 BC

    Alexander III of Macedon

    Greece
    336 BC

    Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.




  • Egypt
    332 BC

    Alexander the Great invaded Egypt

    Egypt
    332 BC

    In 332 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, invaded Egypt, which at the time was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire known as the Thirty-first Dynasty under Emperor Artaxerxes III.




  • Iraq
    332 BC

    Alexander's death

    Iraq
    332 BC

    Following Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 BC, a succession crisis erupted among his generals. Initially, Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon.




  • Alexandria, Egypt
    331 BC

    Alexandria was founded in 331 BC

    Alexandria, Egypt
    331 BC

    A major Mediterranean port of Egypt, in ancient times and still today, Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great.




  • Alexandria, Egypt
    Sep, 331 BC

    Alexander founded Alexandria

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Sep, 331 BC

    Alexander founded a new Greek city, Alexandria and Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart and led his forces away to Phoenicia. He left Cleomenes of Naucratis as the ruling nomarch to control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt.




  • Alexandria, Egypt
    320s BC

    Alexandria became the capital

    Alexandria, Egypt
    320s BC

    Alexandria became the capital of the Hellenized Egypt of King Ptolemy I (reigned 323–283 BC).




  • Alexandria, Egypt
    320s BC

    Library of Alexandria is a most Milestones Culture of Ptolemaic

    Alexandria, Egypt
    320s BC

    Ptolemy I, perhaps with advice from Demetrius of Phalerum, founded the Library of Alexandria.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    323 BC

    Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy

    Alexandria, Egypt
    323 BC

    Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy, one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled Egypt from 323 BC, nominally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    322 BC

    Wars of the Diadochi

    Alexandria, Egypt
    322 BC

    Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt by consolidated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi (322–301 BC).


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    321 BC

    Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    321 BC

    Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC.


  • Cyprus
    306 BC

    Ptolemy occupied Corinth

    Cyprus
    306 BC

    Ptolemy occupied Corinth and other parts of Greece, although he lost Cyprus after a naval battle in 306 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    300s BC

    Serapis a new god

    Alexandria, Egypt
    300s BC

    Ptolemy I Soter made himself king of Egypt, he created a new god, Serapis, to garner support from both Greeks and Egyptians.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    300s BC

    Ptolemy I Soter

    Alexandria, Egypt
    300s BC

    Ptolemy I Soter, was a Greek general, historian, and companion of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy was the pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    305 BC

    Ptolemy took the title of King

    Alexandria, Egypt
    305 BC

    In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. As Ptolemy I Soter ("Saviour"), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty that was to rule Egypt for nearly 300 years.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    304 BC

    Ptolemaic art

    Alexandria, Egypt
    304 BC

    Ptolemaic art was produced during the reign of the Ptolemaic Rulers (304–30 BC) and was concentrated primarily within the bounds of the Ptolemaic Empire.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    295 BC

    Ptolemy retook Cyprus

    Alexandria, Egypt
    295 BC

    Thereafter Ptolemy tried to stay out of land wars, but he retook Cyprus in 295 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    Sunday Sep 13, 285 BC
    07:23:00 AM

    Ptolemy shared rule ith his son Ptolemy II

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Sunday Sep 13, 285 BC

    Feeling the kingdom was now secure, Ptolemy shared rule with his son Ptolemy II by Queen Berenice in 285 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    283 BC

    Ptolemy II Philadelphus was a peaceful and cultured pharaoh

    Alexandria, Egypt
    283 BC

    Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who succeeded his father as the pharaoh of Egypt in 283 BC, was a peaceful and cultured pharaoh, though unlike his father was no great warrior.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1st Millenium BC

    Literary golden period

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1st Millenium BC

    During Alexandria's brief literary golden period, c. 280–240 BC, the Library subsidized three poets—Callimachus, Apollonius of Rhodes, and Theocritus—whose work now represents the best of Hellenistic literature.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    270s BC

    Gold coin

    Alexandria, Egypt
    270s BC

    Gold coin with the visage of Arsinoe II wearing divine diadem.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    270 BC

    Ptolemy II defeated the Kingdom of Kush

    Alexandria, Egypt
    270 BC

    In the 270s BC, Ptolemy II defeated the Kingdom of Kush in war, gaining the Ptolemies free access to Kushite territory and control of important gold deposits south of Egypt known as Dodekasoinos.


  • Cyrenaica, Syria, and Cyprus
    240s BC

    Military force of Ptolemaic army

    Cyrenaica, Syria, and Cyprus
    240s BC

    Ptolemaic control or influence over Cyrenaica, Coele-Syria, and Cyprus, as well as over cities in Anatolia, southern Thrace, the Aegean islands, and Crete.


  • Syria
    246 BC

    The Third Syrian War

    Syria
    246 BC

    Ptolemy III Euergetes abandoned his predecessors' policy of keeping out of the wars of the other Macedonian successor kingdoms and plunged into the Third Syrian War (246–241 BC) with the Seleucid Empire of Syria.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    246 BC

    Ptolemy III Euergetes was the third pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    246 BC

    Ptolemy III Euergetes was the third pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt from 246 to 222 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    238 BC

    Ptolemy III had introduced an important innovation

    Alexandria, Egypt
    238 BC

    Ptolemy III had introduced an important innovation in 238 BC by holding a synod of all the priests of Egypt at Canopus.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    221 BC

    Egyptian nationalism reached a peak in the reign of Ptolemy IV

    Alexandria, Egypt
    221 BC

    Egyptian nationalism reached a peak in the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221–205 BC), when a succession of native self-proclaimed "Pharoah" gained control over one district.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    221 BC

    The decline of the Ptolemaic Kingdom

    Alexandria, Egypt
    221 BC

    In 221 BC, Ptolemy III died and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy IV Philopator, a weak king whose rule precipitated the decline of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    217 BC

    Ptolemy IV continued hold celebrations of the Fourth Syrian War

    Alexandria, Egypt
    217 BC

    Ptolemy IV continued this tradition by holding his own synod at Memphis in 217 BC, after the victory celebrations of the Fourth Syrian War.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    Wednesday Jan 15, 217 BC

    The result of this synod

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Wednesday Jan 15, 217 BC

    The result of this synod was the Raphia Decree, issued on 15 November 217 BC and preserved in three copies.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    205 BC

    Hugronaphor proclaimed himself Pharoah

    Alexandria, Egypt
    205 BC

    Misrule by the Pharoah in Alexandria led to a nearly successful revolt, led by a priest named Hugronaphor. He proclaimed himself Pharoah in 205 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    204 BC

    Ptolemy V Epiphanes Eucharistos was the King of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    204 BC

    Ptolemy V Epiphanes Eucharistos was the King of Ptolemaic Egypt from July or August 204 BC until his death in 180 BC.


  • Thrace (Bulgaria)
    200 BC

    Philip seized several islands

    Thrace (Bulgaria)
    200 BC

    Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, while the battle of Panium in 200 BC transferred Coele-Syria from Ptolemaic to Seleucid control.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    185 BC

    Ankhmakis forces nearly drove the Ptolomys

    Alexandria, Egypt
    185 BC

    Ankhmakis forces nearly drove the Ptolomys out of the country. The revolutionary dynasty was finally defeated in 185.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    180 BC

    Ptolemy VI Philometor was a king of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    180 BC

    Ptolemy VI Philometor was a king of Ptolemaic Egypt who reigned from 180 to 164 BC and from 163 to 145 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    175 BC

    Cleopatra II was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    175 BC

    Cleopatra II was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt who ruled from 175 to 116 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    170 BC

    Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    170 BC

    In 170 BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt and captured Philometor, installing him at Memphis as a puppet king.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1st Millenium BC

    The Statuette of Arsinoe II

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1st Millenium BC

    The Statuette of Arsinoe II has created c. 150–100 BC, well after her death, as a part of her own specific posthumous cult which was started by her husband Ptolemy II.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    145 BC

    Philometor was killed

    Alexandria, Egypt
    145 BC

    Philometor was killed in the Battle of Antioch.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    144 BC

    Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty

    Alexandria, Egypt
    144 BC

    Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. He was the younger son of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra. His reign was characterized by fierce political and military conflict with his older brother Ptolemy VI Philometor and his sister Cleopatra II.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    140s BC

    Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was king of the Ptolemaic period

    Alexandria, Egypt
    140s BC

    Ptolemy VII Neos Philopatorwas an Egyptian king of the Ptolemaic period. His reign is controversial, and it is possible that he did not reign at all, but was only granted royal dignity posthumously.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    142 BC

    Cleopatra III was a queen of Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    142 BC

    Cleopatra III was the queen of Egypt. She ruled at first with her mother Cleopatra II and husband Ptolemy VIII from 142 to 131 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    130s BC

    Gymnasium of the local in the Ptolemaic era

    Alexandria, Egypt
    130s BC

    Far up the Nile at Ombi a gymnasium of the local Greeks was found in 136–135 BC, which passed resolutions and corresponded with the king.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    116 BC

    After Ptolemy VIII death

    Alexandria, Egypt
    116 BC

    Ptolemy VIII soon proved himself a cruel tyrant. On his death, in 116 BC he left the kingdom to his wife Cleopatra III and her son Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    116 BC

    Ptolemy IX Soter II was twice King of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    116 BC

    Ptolemy IX Soter II was twice King of Ptolemaic Egypt. He was the son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    107 BC

    Ptolemy IX driven out by his mother

    Alexandria, Egypt
    107 BC

    The young king was driven out by his mother in 107 BC, who reigned jointly with Euergetes's youngest son Ptolemy X Alexander I.


  • Egypt
    107 BC

    PtolAlexander II of Egypt was Pharaoh of Egypt

    Egypt
    107 BC

    PtolAlexander II of Egypt was Pharaoh of Egypt from 107 BC till his death in 88 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1988 BC

    Ptolemy IX again returned to the throne

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1988 BC

    In 88 BC Ptolemy IX again returned to the throne and retained it until his death in 80 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1981 BC

    Berenice III was also known as Cleopatra

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1981 BC

    Berenice III was also known as Cleopatra, lived between 91 and 88 BC. Modern scholars studying Berenice III refer to her sometimes as Cleopatra Berenice.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1980 BC

    Alexander III ruled Egypt for a few days

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1980 BC

    Alexander III of Egypt, ruling as Ptolemy XI, was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty who ruled Egypt for a few days in 80 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1958 BC

    Auletes was driven out by the Alexandrian mob

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1958 BC

    In 58 BC Auletes was driven out by the Alexandrian mob, but the Romans restored him to power three years later.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1950s BC

    Cleopatra VI Tryphaena was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1950s BC

    Cleopatra VI Tryphaena was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt who ruled alongside Berenice IV, who was either her sister or daughter.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1951 BC

    Cleopatra II was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1951 BC

    Cleopatra VI Tryphaena or Cleopatra Tryphaena II was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt who ruled alongside Berenice IV, who was either her sister or daughter.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    1951 BC

    Cleopatra VII Philopator was Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    1951 BC

    Cleopatra VII Philopator 69 BC – 10 August 30 BC was Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and its last active ruler.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    2048 BC

    Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria

    Alexandria, Egypt
    2048 BC

    Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria in 48 BC in order to quell the looming civil war, as the war in Egypt, which was one of Rome's greatest suppliers of grain and other expensive goods, would have had a detrimental effect on trade with Rome, especially on Rome's working-class citizens.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    2045 BC

    Cleopatra and Caesarion left Alexandria

    Alexandria, Egypt
    2045 BC

    In 45 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion left Alexandria for Rome, where they stayed in a palace built by Caesar in their honor.


  • Rome, Italy
    2044 BC

    Rome split between supporters of Mark Antony and Octavian

    Rome, Italy
    2044 BC

    In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered in Rome by several Senators. With his death, Rome split between supporters of Mark Antony and Octavian.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    2044 BC

    Ptolemy XV Caesar was the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    2044 BC

    Ptolemy XV Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, was the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt, reigning with his mother Cleopatra from 2 September 44 BC until her death by 12 August 30 BC.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    221

    Ptolemy IV Philopator was the fourth pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt

    Alexandria, Egypt
    221

    Ptolemy IV Philopator was the fourth pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.


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