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  • Caracas, Venezuela
    Thursday Jul 24, 1783

    Birth

    Caracas, Venezuela
    Thursday Jul 24, 1783

    Simón Bolívar was born in a house in Caracas, Captaincy General of Venezuela, on 24 July 1783.




  • Caracas, Venezuela
    1797

    Don Simón Rodríguez was forced to leave the country

    Caracas, Venezuela
    1797

    When Bolívar was fourteen, Don Simón Rodríguez was forced to leave the country after being accused of involvement in a conspiracy against the Spanish government in Caracas. Bolívar then entered the military academy of the Milicias de Aragua.




  • Madrid, Spain
    1800

    Bolívar was sent to Spain to follow his military studies in Madrid

    Madrid, Spain
    1800

    In 1800, he was sent to Spain to follow his military studies in Madrid, where he remained until 1802.




  • Madrid, Spain
    1802

    Marriage

    Madrid, Spain
    1802

    In 1799, following the early deaths of his father Juan Vicente (dead since 1786) and his mother Concepción (who died in 1792), Bolívar traveled to Mexico, France, and Spain, at the age of 16 years, to complete his education. While in Madrid during 1802 and after a two-year courtship, he married María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaiza, who was to be his only wife. She was related to the aristocratic families of the marquis del Toro of Caracas and the marquis de Inicio of Madrid.




  • Paris, France
    1804

    Bolívar lived in France

    Paris, France
    1804

    Back in Europe in 1804, Bolívar lived in France and traveled to different countries.




  • Notre Dame, Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 02, 1804

    Bolívar witnessed the coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame

    Notre Dame, Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 02, 1804

    While in Paris, Bolívar witnessed the coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame, an event that left a profound impression on him. Even if he disagreed with the crowning, he was highly sensitive to the popular veneration inspired by the hero.




  • Venezuela
    1807

    Bolívar returned to Venezuela

    Venezuela
    1807

    Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807. After a coup on 19 April 1810, Venezuela achieved de facto independence when the Supreme Junta of Caracas was established and the colonial administrators deposed. The Supreme Junta sent a delegation to Great Britain to get British recognition and aid. This delegation presided by Bolívar also included two future Venezuelan notables Andrés Bello and Luis López Méndez. The trio met with Francisco de Miranda and persuaded him to return to his native land.


  • La Guaira, Venezuela
    1811

    Delegation from the Supreme Junta and a crowd of commoners enthusiastically received Miranda in La Guaira

    La Guaira, Venezuela
    1811

    In 1811, a delegation from the Supreme Junta, also including Bolívar, and a crowd of commoners enthusiastically received Miranda in La Guaira.


  • Venezuela
    1812

    Bolívar was made commandant of Puerto Cabello

    Venezuela
    1812

    During the insurgence war conducted by Miranda, Bolívar was promoted to colonel and was made commandant of Puerto Cabello the following year, 1812.


  • San Felipe Castle, Puerto Cabello, Carabobo
    Tuesday Jun 30, 1812

    Bolívar lost control of San Felipe Castle along with its ammunition stores

    San Felipe Castle, Puerto Cabello, Carabobo
    Tuesday Jun 30, 1812

    As Royalist Frigate Captain Domingo de Monteverde was advancing into republican territory from the west, Bolívar lost control of San Felipe Castle along with its ammunition stores on 30 June 1812. Bolívar then retreated to his estate in San Mateo.


  • Venezuela
    Saturday Jul 25, 1812

    Agreement with Monteverde

    Venezuela
    Saturday Jul 25, 1812

    Miranda saw the republican cause as lost and signed a capitulation agreement with Monteverde on 25 July, an action that Bolívar and other revolutionary officers deemed treasonous. In one of Bolívar's most morally dubious acts, he and others arrested Miranda and handed him over to the Spanish Royal Army at the port of La Guaira.


  • Curaçao
    Thursday Aug 27, 1812

    Bolívar left for Curaçao

    Curaçao
    Thursday Aug 27, 1812

    For his apparent services to the Royalist cause, Monteverde granted Bolívar a passport, and Bolívar left for Curaçao on 27 August.


  • Tunja, New Granada (modern-day Colombia)
    1813

    Bolívar was given a military command in Tunja

    Tunja, New Granada (modern-day Colombia)
    1813

    It must be said, though, that Bolívar protested to the Spanish authorities about the reasons why he handled Miranda, insisting that he was not lending a service to the Crown but punishing a defector. In 1813, he was given a military command in Tunja, New Granada (modern-day Colombia), under the direction of the Congress of United Provinces of New Granada, which had formed out of the juntas established in 1810.


  • Mérida, Venezuela
    Monday May 24, 1813

    Bolívar entered Mérida

    Mérida, Venezuela
    Monday May 24, 1813

    This was the beginning of the Admirable Campaign. On 24 May, Bolívar entered Mérida, where he was proclaimed El Libertador ("The Liberator").


  • Venezuela
    Tuesday Jun 15, 1813

    Decree of War to the Death

    Venezuela
    Tuesday Jun 15, 1813

    This was followed by the occupation of Trujillo on 9 June. Six days later, and as a result of Spanish massacres on independence supporters, Bolívar dictated his famous "Decree of War to the Death", allowing the killing of any Spaniard not actively supporting independence.


  • Caracas, Venezuela
    Friday Aug 06, 1813

    Caracas was retaken

    Caracas, Venezuela
    Friday Aug 06, 1813

    Caracas was retaken on 6 August 1813, and Bolívar was ratified as El Libertador, establishing the Second Republic of Venezuela. The following year, because of the rebellion of José Tomás Boves and the fall of the republic, Bolívar returned to New Granada, where he commanded a force for the United Provinces.


  • Bogota, Colombia
    1814

    Bolívar forces entered Bogotá

    Bogota, Colombia
    1814

    Bolívar forces entered Bogotá in 1814 and recaptured the city from the dissenting republican forces of Cundinamarca. Bolívar intended to march into Cartagena and enlist the aid of local forces in order to capture the Royalist town of Santa Marta.


  • Jamaica
    1815

    Bolívar fled to Jamaica

    Jamaica
    1815

    In 1815, however, after a number of political and military disputes with the government of Cartagena, Bolívar fled to Jamaica, where he was denied support. After an assassination attempt in Jamaica, he fled to Haiti, where he was granted protection. He befriended Alexandre Pétion, the president of the recently independent southern republic (as opposed to the Kingdom of Haiti in the north), and petitioned him for aid.


  • Venezuela
    Sunday Jun 02, 1816

    Fulfilled his promise to Pétion to free Spanish America's slaves

    Venezuela
    Sunday Jun 02, 1816

    In 1816, with Haitian soldiers and vital material support, Bolívar landed in Venezuela and fulfilled his promise to Pétion to free Spanish America's slaves on 2 June 1816.


  • Angostura, Venezuela
    Jul, 1817

    Bolívar captured Angostura after defeating the counter-attack of Miguel de la Torre

    Angostura, Venezuela
    Jul, 1817

    In July 1817, on a second expedition, Bolívar captured Angostura after defeating the counter-attack of Miguel de la Torre. However, Venezuela remained a captaincy of Spain after the victory in 1818 by Pablo Morillo in the Second Battle of La Puerta.


  • Angostura, Venezuela
    Monday Feb 15, 1819

    Venezuelan Second National Congress

    Angostura, Venezuela
    Monday Feb 15, 1819

    On 15 February 1819, Bolívar was able to open the Venezuelan Second National Congress in Angostura, in which he was elected president and Francisco Antonio Zea was elected vice president. Bolívar then decided that he would first fight for the independence of New Granada, to gain resources of the vice royalty, intending later to consolidate the independence of Venezuela.


  • Boyacá, Colombia
    Saturday Aug 07, 1819

    Battle of Boyacá

    Boyacá, Colombia
    Saturday Aug 07, 1819

    The campaign for the independence of New Granada, which included the crossing of the Andes mountain range, one of history's military feats, was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. The Battle of Boyacá (1819), was the decisive battle that ensured the success of Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada. The battle of Boyaca is considered the beginning of the independence of the North of South America, and is considered important because it led to the victories of the battle of Carabobo in Venezuela, Pichincha in Ecuador, and Junín and Ayacucho in Peru.


  • Angostura, Venezuela
    Friday Dec 17, 1819

    Bolívar returned to Angostura

    Angostura, Venezuela
    Friday Dec 17, 1819

    Bolívar returned to Angostura, when congress passed a law forming a greater Republic of Colombia on 17 December, making Bolívar president and Zea vice president, with Francisco de Paula Santander vice president on the New Granada side, and Juan Germán Roscio vice president on the Venezuela side.


  • Venezuela
    Saturday Nov 25, 1820

    Morillo ratified two treaties with Bolívar

    Venezuela
    Saturday Nov 25, 1820

    Morillo was left in control of Caracas and the coastal highlands.After the restoration of the Cádiz Constitution, Morillo ratified two treaties with Bolívar on 25 November 1820, calling for a six-month armistice and recognizing Bolívar as president of the republic.


  • San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela
    Monday Nov 27, 1820

    Bolívar and Morillo met in San Fernando de Apure

    San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela
    Monday Nov 27, 1820

    Bolívar and Morillo met in San Fernando de Apure on 27 November, after which Morillo left Venezuela for Spain, leaving La Torre in command.


  • Caracas, Venezuela
    Friday Jun 29, 1821

    Bolívar triumphantly entered Caracas

    Caracas, Venezuela
    Friday Jun 29, 1821

    From his newly consolidated base of power, Bolívar launched outright independence campaigns in Venezuela and Ecuador. These campaigns concluded with the victory at the Battle of Carabobo, after which Bolívar triumphantly entered Caracas on 29 June 1821.


  • a state covering much of modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela
    Friday Sep 07, 1821

    Gran Colombia

    a state covering much of modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela
    Friday Sep 07, 1821

    On 7 September 1821, Gran Colombia (a state covering much of modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela) was created, with Bolívar as president and Santander as vice president.


  • Quito, Equador
    Sunday Jun 16, 1822

    Bolívar entered Quito, Equador

    Quito, Equador
    Sunday Jun 16, 1822

    Bolívar followed with the Battle of Bombona and the Battle of Pichincha, after which he entered Quito on 16 June 1822.


  • Guayaquil, Ecuador
    Friday Jul 26, 1822

    Guayaquil Conference

    Guayaquil, Ecuador
    Friday Jul 26, 1822

    On 26 and 27 July 1822, Bolívar held the Guayaquil Conference with the Argentine General José de San Martín, who had received the title of "Protector of Peruvian Freedom" in August 1821 after partially liberating Peru from the Spanish.


  • Peru
    Tuesday Feb 10, 1824

    The Peruvian congress named him dictator of Peru

    Peru
    Tuesday Feb 10, 1824

    Thereafter, Bolívar took over the task of fully liberating Peru. The Peruvian congress named him dictator of Peru on 10 February 1824, which allowed Bolívar to reorganize completely the political and military administration. Assisted by Antonio José de Sucre, Bolívar decisively defeated the Spanish cavalry at the Battle of Junín on 6 August 1824. Sucre destroyed the still numerically superior remnants of the Spanish forces at Ayacucho on 9 December 1824.


  • Bolivia
    Saturday Aug 06, 1825

    Republic of Bolivia

    Bolivia
    Saturday Aug 06, 1825

    On 6 August 1825, at the Congress of Upper Peru, the "Republic of Bolivia" was created.


  • Bogota, Colombia
    Friday Jan 12, 1827

    Back to Bogota

    Bogota, Colombia
    Friday Jan 12, 1827

    Bolívar is thus one of the few people to have a country named after him. Bolívar returned to Caracas on 12 January 1827, and then back to Bogotá.


  • Ocaña, Colombia
    Mar, 1828

    Bolívar called for a constitutional convention

    Ocaña, Colombia
    Mar, 1828

    Bolívar had great difficulties maintaining control of the vast Gran Colombia. In 1826, internal divisions sparked dissent throughout the nation, and regional uprisings erupted in Venezuela. The new South American union had revealed its fragility and appeared to be on the verge of collapse. To preserve the union, an amnesty was declared and an arrangement was reached with the Venezuelan rebels, but this increased the political dissent in neighboring New Granada. In an attempt to keep the nation together as a single entity, Bolívar called for a constitutional convention at Ocaña in March 1828.


  • New Granada (Present Day Colombia)
    Wednesday Apr 09, 1828

    This move was considered controversial in New Granada and was one of the reasons for the deliberations

    New Granada (Present Day Colombia)
    Wednesday Apr 09, 1828

    This move was considered controversial in New Granada and was one of the reasons for the deliberations, which met from 9 April to 10 June 1828. The convention almost ended up drafting a document which would have implemented a radically federalist form of government, which would have greatly reduced the powers of a central administration. The federalist faction was able to command a majority for the draft of a new constitution which has definite federal characteristics despite its ostensibly centralist outline. Unhappy with what would be the ensuing result, pro-Bolívar delegates withdrew from the convention, leaving it moribund.


  • Venezuela
    Wednesday Jan 13, 1830

    Venezuela was proclaimed independent

    Venezuela
    Wednesday Jan 13, 1830

    After the facts, Bolivar continued to govern in a rarefied environment, cornered by fractional disputes. Uprisings occurred in New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador during the following two years. The separatists accused him of betraying republican principles and of wanting to establish a permanent dictatorship. Gran Colombia declared war against Peru when president General La Mar invaded Guayaquil. He was later defeated by Marshall Antonio José de Sucre in the Battle of the Portete de Tarqui, 27 February 1829. Sucre was killed on 4 June 1830. General Juan José Flores wanted to separate the southern departments (Quito, Guayaquil, and Azuay), known as the District of Ecuador, from Gran Colombia to form an independent country and become its first President. Venezuela was proclaimed independent on 13 January 1830 and José Antonio Páez maintained the presidency of that country, banishing Bolivar.


  • Gran Colombia
    Wednesday Jan 20, 1830

    Dream fell apart

    Gran Colombia
    Wednesday Jan 20, 1830

    On 20 January 1830, as his dream fell apart, Bolívar delivered his final address to the nation, announcing that he would be stepping down from the presidency of Gran Colombia. In his speech, a distraught Bolívar urged the people to maintain the union and to be wary of the intentions of those who advocated for separation.


  • Gran Colombia
    Tuesday Apr 27, 1830

    Bolívar finally resigned the presidency

    Gran Colombia
    Tuesday Apr 27, 1830

    Bolívar finally resigned the presidency on 27 April 1830, intending to leave the country for exile in Europe. He had already sent several crates containing his belongings and writings ahead of him to Europe, but he died before setting sail from Cartagena.


  • Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino in Santa Marta, Gran Colombia (now Colombia)
    Friday Dec 17, 1830

    Death

    Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino in Santa Marta, Gran Colombia (now Colombia)
    Friday Dec 17, 1830

    On 17 December 1830, at the age of 47, Simón Bolívar died of tuberculosis in the Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino in Santa Marta, Gran Colombia (now Colombia).


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