In April 1990, Slovenia held its first democratic multi-party elections, won by the DEMOS coalition.
The Slovenian government resisted these moves and successfully ensured that the majority of Slovenian Territorial Defense (TO) equipment was kept out of the hands of the JLA. It also declared in a constitutional amendment passed on 28 September 1990 that its TO would be under the sole command of the Slovenian government.
On 23 December 1990, Slovenia held a referendum, which passed with 88.5% of overall electorate supporting independence (94.8% of votes cast), with a turnout of 93.3%.
Slovenia and Croatia passed the acts about their independence on 25 June 1991.
On the morning of 26 June, units of the Yugoslav People's Army's 13th Corps left their barracks in Rijeka, Croatia, to move towards Slovenia's borders with Italy.
In the afternoon of 27 June, the Slovenian TO (Slovenian Territorial Defence) shot down two YPA helicopters.
In the early hours of 27 June the Slovenian leadership was told of the movements of the YPA. The military leadership of the Fifth Military District, which included Slovenia, was in telephone contact with Slovenian president Milan Kučan, telling him that the troops' mission was limited to taking over the border crossings and airport. A meeting of the Slovene presidency was hastily convened at which Kučan and the rest of the members decided on armed resistance.
Further YPA troop movements took place in the early hours of 27 June. A unit of the YPA's 306th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, based in Karlovac, Croatia, crossed the Slovenian border at Metlika.
A few hours later, a column of tanks and armoured personnel carriers of the YPA 1st Armoured Brigade left their barracks at Vrhnika near the Slovenian capital Ljubljana, heading for the airport at Brnik.
Despite the confusion and fighting, the YPA nonetheless successfully accomplished much of its military mission. By midnight on 27 June it had captured all of the crossings along the Italian border, all but three crossings on the Austrian border and several of the new crossing points established along Slovenia's border with Croatia.
The border crossings were a major source of revenue. In addition, by taking control of the borders, the Slovenians were able to establish defensive positions against an expected JLA attack. This meant that the YPA would have to fire the first shot. It was fired on 27 June at 14:30 in Divača by an officer of YPA.
The border crossing at Holmec was captured by Slovenian TO forces. Two Slovenian and three YPA soldiers were killed, and 91 YPA soldiers captured.
Additional fighting took place throughout the day. The YPA tank column that had been attacked at Pesnica the previous day was blocked by impromptu barricades of Slovenian trucks at Štrihovec, a few kilometers short of the border with Austria, where it again came under attack by Slovenian TO personnel and Slovenian police. The SFR Yugoslav Air Force mounted two airstrikes in support of the YPA forces at Strihovec, killing four truck drivers. At Medvedjek in central Slovenia, another YPA tank column came under attack at a truck barricade, where air raids killed six truck drivers. Heavy fighting broke out at Nova Gorica on the border with Italy, where the Slovenian Special Forces fired two armburst antitank rockets and fired 700 rounds from infantry weapons. Slovene troops destroyed two YPA T-55 tanks and captured an additional three, plus a BTS-1 racked buldozer. Three YPA soldiers were killed and 16 wounded, among them the commander of the armored column, and 98 surrendered.
By the end of the day, the YPA still held many of its positions but was rapidly losing ground. YPA was beginning to experience problems with desertions — many Slovenian members of the YPA quit their units or simply changed sides - and both the troops on the ground and the leadership in Belgrade appeared to have little idea of what to do next.
Skirmishing continued in several places during the day. Slovenian forces seized the strategic Karawanken Tunnel under the Alps on the border with Austria and captured nine YPA tanks near Nova Gorica.
the YPA's leadership sought permission to change the tempo of its operations. Defense Minister Veljko Kadijević informed the Yugoslav cabinet that the YPA's first plan – a limited operation to secure Slovenia's border crossings – had failed, and that it was time to put into operation the backup plan of a full-scale invasion and imposition of military rule in Slovenia.
>>the collective presidency (Yogoslavia)– headed at the time by Serbia's Borisav Jović – refused to authorise such an operation. The YPA Chief of Staff, General Blagoje Adžić, was furious and publicly denounced "the federal organs [which] continually hampered us, demanding negotiations while they [the Slovenians] were attacking us with all means".
More skirmishes took place, with Slovenian TO forces taking over a YPA facility at Nova vas, south of Ljubljana.
The YPA's ammunition dump at Črni Vrh caught fire and was destroyed in a massive explosion, damaging much of the town.
The Slovenians successfully captured depots at Pečovnik, Bukovžlak, and Zaloška Gorica, taking possession of some 70 truckloads of ammunition and explosives.
The YPA 306th Light Air Defense Artillery Regiment's column retreated from its exposed position at Medvedjek and headed into the Krakovo Forest (Krakovski gozd) near the Croatian border.
It ran into a blockade near the town of Krško and was surrounded by Slovenian forces, but refused to surrender, probably hoping for help from a relief column.
The Slovenian TO mounted successful attacks on border crossings at Šentilj, Gornja Radgona, Fernetiči and Gorjansko, overrunning them and taking a number of YPA troops prisoner.
The heaviest fighting of the war to date took place during 2 July. The Domžale radio transmitter was attacked at (11:37 local time) and heavily damaged by two YPA Mig-21 planes.
At 21:00, the Slovenian Presidency announced a unilateral ceasefire. However, this was rejected by the YPA leadership, which vowed to "take control" and crush Slovenian resistance.
A large YPA armoured convoy set off from Belgrade on the morning of 3 July, ostensibly to go to Slovenia. It never arrived; according to the official account, this was due to mechanical breakdowns.
With a ceasefire now in force, the two sides disengaged. Slovenian forces took control of all of the country's border crossings, and YPA units were allowed to withdraw peacefully to barracks and to cross the border to Croatia.
The Ten-Day War was formally ended with the Brioni Accord, signed on the Croatian Brijuni Islands. Slovenian and Croatian independence were agreed to.
For Slovenia, the war marked the decisive defense of its independence in regard to Yugoslavia. It was officially recognised by all European Community member states on 15 January 1992.
Joined the United Nations on 22 May.
Yugoslavia (Death)= 44
Slovenia (Death)= 19
Yugoslavia (Wounded)= 146
Slovenia (Wounded)= 182
Yugoslavia (Prisoner)= 4,693
Slovenia (Prisoner)= --