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  • Vietnam
    Sep, 1945

    Vietnam Independence day

    Vietnam
    Sep, 1945

    Vietnam had just declared independence in September 1945.




  • Korean Peninsula (North Korea and South Korea)
    Sunday Jun 25, 1950

    Korean War

    Korean Peninsula (North Korea and South Korea)
    Sunday Jun 25, 1950

    The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 convinced many Washington policymakers that the war in Indochina was an example of communist expansionism directed by the Soviet Union.




  • Vietnam
    Jul, 1950

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) began assisting the Viet Minh

    Vietnam
    Jul, 1950

    Military advisors from the People's Republic of China (PRC) began assisting the Viet Minh ((League for the Independence of Vietnam) was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941) in July 1950.




  • Vietnam
    Sep, 1950

    Military Assistance and Advisory Group

    Vietnam
    Sep, 1950

    In September 1950, the United States created a Military Assistance and Advisory Group (MAAG) to screen French requests for aid, advise on strategy, and train Vietnamese soldiers. By 1954, the United States had spent US$1 billion in support of the French military effort, shouldering 80 percent of the cost of the war.




  • North Vietnam
    Jan, 1953

    The North Vietnamese

    North Vietnam
    Jan, 1953

    Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression. During the land reform, testimony from North Vietnamese witnesses suggested a ratio of one execution for every 160 village residents, which extrapolated nationwide would indicate nearly 100,000 executions. Because the campaign was concentrated mainly in the Red River Delta area, a lower estimate of 50,000 executions became widely accepted by scholars at the time.




  • South Vietnam
    Jan, 1954

    "Ngô Đình Diệm really did accomplish miracles" in South Vietnam

    South Vietnam
    Jan, 1954

    According to the Pentagon Papers, however, from 1954 to 1956 "Ngô Đình Diệm really did accomplish miracles" in South Vietnam: "It is almost certain that by 1956 the proportion which might have voted for Ho—in a free election against Diệm—would have been much smaller than eighty percent."




  • Geneva, Switzerland
    Friday May 07, 1954

    The Geneva Conference

    Geneva, Switzerland
    Friday May 07, 1954

    On 7 May 1954, the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu surrendered. The defeat marked the end of French military involvement in Indochina. At the Geneva Conference, the French negotiated a ceasefire agreement with the Viet Minh, and independence was granted to Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.


  • South Vietnam
    Jul, 1954

    The State of Vietnam

    South Vietnam
    Jul, 1954

    The south, meanwhile, constituted the State of Vietnam, with Bảo Đại as Emperor and Ngô Đình Diệm (appointed in July 1954) as his prime minister. Neither the United States government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference.


  • Cambodia
    1955

    Cambodia is neutral

    Cambodia
    1955

    Prince Norodom Sihanouk had proclaimed Cambodia neutral since 1955, but permitted the NVA/Viet Cong to use Cambodia as a staging ground for the Sihanouk Trail.


  • South Vietnam
    Apr, 1955

    Diệm eliminated any political opposition in the south

    South Vietnam
    Apr, 1955

    From April to June 1955, Diệm eliminated any political opposition in the south by launching military operations against two religious groups: the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo of Ba Cụt. The campaign also focused on the Bình Xuyên organized crime group, which was allied with members of the communist party secret police and had some military elements. As broad-based opposition to his harsh tactics mounted, Diệm increasingly sought to blame the communists.


  • Vietnam
    Sunday Oct 23, 1955

    Referendum on the future of the State of Vietnam

    Vietnam
    Sunday Oct 23, 1955

    In a referendum on the future of the State of Vietnam on 23 October 1955, Diệm rigged the poll supervised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu and was credited with 98.2 percent of the vote, including 133% in Saigon. His American advisors had recommended a more modest winning margin of "60 to 70 percent." Diệm, however, viewed the election as a test of authority.


  • Vietnam
    Apr, 1956

    The last French soldiers

    Vietnam
    Apr, 1956

    The last French soldiers were to leave Vietnam in April 1956.


  • South Vietnam
    Aug, 1956

    The death penalty against any activity deemed communist in August 1956

    South Vietnam
    Aug, 1956

    Beginning in the summer of 1955, Diệm launched the "Denounce the Communists" campaign, during which suspected communists and other anti-government elements were arrested, imprisoned, tortured, or executed. He instituted the death penalty against any activity deemed communist in August 1956.


  • South Vietnam
    1957

    South Vietnam enjoyed its first peace in over a decade

    South Vietnam
    1957

    Between 1954 and 1957, there was large-scale but disorganized dissidence in the countryside, which the Diệm government succeeded in quelling. In early 1957, South Vietnam enjoyed its first peace in over a decade.


  • U.S.
    May, 1957

    Diệm undertook a ten-day state visit to the United States

    U.S.
    May, 1957

    In May 1957, Diệm undertook a ten-day state visit to the United States. President Eisenhower pledged his continued support, and a parade was held in Diệm's honor in New York City. Although Diệm was publicly praised, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles conceded in private that Diệm had been selected because there were no better alternatives.


  • Vietnam
    1959

    Military Deaths until 1959

    Vietnam
    1959

    Between 1956 and 1959, 4 Americans were killed.


  • Vietnam
    1960

    Military Deaths In 1960

    Vietnam
    1960

    In 1960, 5 Americans and 2,223 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Vietnam
    1961

    Military Deaths In 1961

    Vietnam
    1961

    In 1961, 16 Americans and 4,004 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Laos
    Monday Jul 23, 1962

    Agreement Promising to respect the neutrality of Laos

    Laos
    Monday Jul 23, 1962

    On 23 July 1962, fourteen nations, including China, South Vietnam, the Soviet Union, North Vietnam and the United States, signed an agreement promising to respect the neutrality of Laos.


  • Vietnam
    1962

    Military Deaths In 1962

    Vietnam
    1962

    In 1962, 53 Americans and 4457 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Ấp Bắc Hamlet, Định Tường Province (now Tiền Giang Province), South Vietnam
    Wednesday Jan 02, 1963

    The Battle of Ap Bac

    Ấp Bắc Hamlet, Định Tường Province (now Tiền Giang Province), South Vietnam
    Wednesday Jan 02, 1963

    The inept performance of the South Vietnamese army was exemplified by failed actions such as the Battle of Ap Bac on 2 January 1963, in which a small band of Viet Cong won a battle against a much larger and better-equipped South Vietnamese force, many of whose officers seemed reluctant even to engage in combat.


  • Dallas, Taxes, U.S.
    Friday Nov 22, 1963

    President Kennedy assassination

    Dallas, Taxes, U.S.
    Friday Nov 22, 1963

    President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Sunday Nov 24, 1963

    The Battle against communism

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Sunday Nov 24, 1963

    Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson had not been heavily involved with policy toward Vietnam; however, upon becoming president, Johnson immediately focused on the war. On 24 November 1963, he said, "the battle against communism ... must be joined ... with strength and determination".


  • Vietnam
    1963

    Military Deaths In 1963

    Vietnam
    1963

    In 1963, 122 Americans and 5665 Vietnamese were killed.


  • North Vietnam
    Sunday Aug 02, 1964

    An Intelligence Mission along North Vietnam's coast

    North Vietnam
    Sunday Aug 02, 1964

    On 2 August 1964, USS Maddox, on an intelligence mission along North Vietnam's coast, allegedly fired upon and damaged several torpedo boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin.


  • North Vietnam
    Friday Aug 07, 1964

    The Second "Attack"

    North Vietnam
    Friday Aug 07, 1964

    The second "attack" led to retaliatory air strikes, and prompted Congress to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on 7 August 1964.


  • Vietnam
    1964

    Military Deaths In 1964

    Vietnam
    1964

    In 1964, 216 Americans and 7457 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Pleiku, South Vietnam
    Sunday Feb 07, 1965

    Attack on a U.S. Army base

    Pleiku, South Vietnam
    Sunday Feb 07, 1965

    The National Security Council recommended a three-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam. Following an attack on a U.S. Army base in Pleiku on 7 February 1965, a series of air strikes was initiated.


  • North Vietnam
    Tuesday Mar 02, 1965

    Operation Rolling Thunder

    North Vietnam
    Tuesday Mar 02, 1965

    Operation Rolling Thunder and Operation Arc Light expanded aerial bombardment and ground support operations.


  • South Vietnam
    Monday Mar 08, 1965

    3,500 U.S. Marines were unilaterally dispatched

    South Vietnam
    Monday Mar 08, 1965

    On 8 March 1965, 3,500 U.S. Marines were unilaterally dispatched to South Vietnam.


  • Vietnam
    1965

    Military Deaths In 1965

    Vietnam
    1965

    In 1965, 1928 Americans and 11242 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Vietnam
    1966

    Military Deaths In 1966

    Vietnam
    1966

    In 1966, 6350 Americans and 11953 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Đắk Tô, South Vietnam
    1967

    The Hill Fights

    Đắk Tô, South Vietnam
    1967

    In late 1967, the NVA lured American forces into the hinterlands at Đắk Tô and at the Marine Khe Sanh combat base in Quảng Trị Province, where the U.S. engaged in a series of battles known as The Hill Fights. These actions were part of a diversionary strategy meant to draw US forces towards the Central Highlands.


  • Vietnam
    1967

    Military Deaths In 1967

    Vietnam
    1967

    In 1967, 11,363 Americans and 12,716 Vietnamese were killed.


  • South Vietnam
    Tuesday Jan 30, 1968

    The Tet Offensive

    South Vietnam
    Tuesday Jan 30, 1968

    The Tet Offensive began on 30 January 1968, as over 100 cities were attacked by over 85,000 enemy troops, including assaults on key military installations, headquarters, and government buildings and offices, including the U.S. Embassy in Saigon.


  • Paris, France
    Friday May 10, 1968

    Peace Talks began

    Paris, France
    Friday May 10, 1968

    On 10 May 1968, peace talks began between the United States and North Vietnam in Paris. Negotiations stagnated for five months, until Johnson gave orders to halt the bombing of North Vietnam. At the same time, Hanoi realized it could not achieve a "total victory" and employed a strategy known as "talking while fighting, fighting while talking", in which military offensives would occur concurrently with negotiations.


  • Vietnam
    1968

    Military Deaths In 1968

    Vietnam
    1968

    In 1968, 16,899 Americans and 27,915 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Vitnam
    1969

    Troops Withdrawals

    Vitnam
    1969

    U.S. president Richard Nixon began troop withdrawals in 1969.


  • South Vietnam
    Tuesday Sep 02, 1969

    Ho Chi Minh Death

    South Vietnam
    Tuesday Sep 02, 1969

    In September 1969, Ho Chi Minh died at age seventy-nine.


  • Vietnam
    Wednesday Oct 15, 1969

    The Vietnam Moratorium

    Vietnam
    Wednesday Oct 15, 1969

    On 15 October 1969, the Vietnam Moratorium attracted millions of Americans.


  • Soviet Union, (Russia)
    Monday Oct 27, 1969

    Operation Giant Lance

    Soviet Union, (Russia)
    Monday Oct 27, 1969

    On 27 October 1969, Nixon had ordered a squadron of 18 B-52s loaded with nuclear weapons to race to the border of Soviet airspace to convince the Soviet Union, in accord with the madman theory, that he was capable of anything to end the Vietnam War ("Operation Giant Lance").


  • Vietnam
    1969

    Military Deaths In 1969

    Vietnam
    1969

    In 1969, 11,780 Americans and 21,833 Vietnamese were killed.


  • South Vietnam
    1970

    The Withdrawal of an additional 150,000 American troops

    South Vietnam
    1970

    In 1970 Nixon announced the withdrawal of an additional 150,000 American troops, reducing the number of Americans to 265,500.


  • Cambodia
    Wednesday Mar 18, 1970

    Cambodian coup of 1970

    Cambodia
    Wednesday Mar 18, 1970

    In March 1970, Prince Sihanouk was deposed by his pro-American prime minister Lon Nol, who demanded that North Vietnamese troops leave Cambodia or face military action.


  • Vietnam
    1970

    Military Deaths In 1970

    Vietnam
    1970

    In 1970, 6,173 Americans and 23,346 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Vietnam
    1971

    Military Deaths In 1971

    Vietnam
    1971

    In 1971, 2,414 Americans and 22,738 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Vietnam
    1972

    Military Deaths In 1972

    Vietnam
    1972

    In 1972, 759 Americans and 39,587 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Paris, France
    Saturday Jan 27, 1973

    Paris Peace Accords

    Paris, France
    Saturday Jan 27, 1973

    On 15 January 1973, all U.S. combat activities were suspended. Lê Đức Thọ and Henry Kissinger, along with the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG, the Viet Cong's government) Foreign Minister Nguyễn Thị Bình and a reluctant President Thiệu, signed the Paris Peace Accords on 27 January 1973.


  • Vietnam
    Sunday Jan 28, 1973

    The War of the flags

    Vietnam
    Sunday Jan 28, 1973

    In the lead-up to the ceasefire on 28 January, both sides attempted to maximize the land and population under their control in a campaign known as the War of the flags, fighting continued after the ceasefire, this time without US participation and continued throughout the year.


  • Vietnam
    Mar, 1973

    All US forces personnel were completely withdrawn

    Vietnam
    Mar, 1973

    All US forces personnel were completely withdrawn by March 1973.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Thursday Mar 15, 1973

    Nixon implied the US would intervene again militarily if the North launched a full offensive

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Thursday Mar 15, 1973

    On 15 March 1973, Nixon implied the US would intervene again militarily if the North launched a full offensive, and Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger re-affirmed this position during his June 1973 confirmation hearings.


  • Vietnam
    1973

    Military Deaths In 1973

    Vietnam
    1973

    In 1973, 68 Americans and 27,901 Vietnamese were killed.


  • South Vietnam
    Friday Jan 04, 1974

    President Thieu announced that the war had restarted

    South Vietnam
    Friday Jan 04, 1974

    After two clashes that left 55 South Vietnamese soldiers dead, President Thieu announced on 4 January 1974, that the war had restarted and that the Paris Peace Accord was no longer in effect. This was despite there being over 25,000 South Vietnamese casualties during the ceasefire period.


  • Phước, South Vietnam
    Friday Dec 13, 1974

    North Vietnamese forces attacked Route 14 in Phước Long Province

    Phước, South Vietnam
    Friday Dec 13, 1974

    On 13 December 1974, North Vietnamese forces attacked Route 14 in Phước Long Province. Phuoc Binh, the provincial capital, fell on 6 January 1975.


  • Vietnam
    1974

    Military Deaths In 1974

    Vietnam
    1974

    In 1974, only one American and 31,219 Vietnamese were killed.


  • Vietnam
    Monday Mar 10, 1975

    General Dung launched Campaign 275

    Vietnam
    Monday Mar 10, 1975

    On 10 March 1975, General Dung launched Campaign 275, a limited offensive into the Central Highlands, supported by tanks and heavy artillery. The target was Buôn Ma Thuột, in Đắk Lắk Province.


  • South Vietnam
    Tuesday Mar 11, 1975

    The ARVN proved incapable of resisting the onslaught

    South Vietnam
    Tuesday Mar 11, 1975

    The ARVN proved incapable of resisting the onslaught, and its forces collapsed on 11 March.


  • Huế, South Vietnam
    Thursday Mar 20, 1975

    Thieu reversed himself and ordered Huế

    Huế, South Vietnam
    Thursday Mar 20, 1975

    On 20 March, Thieu reversed himself and ordered Huế, Vietnam's third-largest city, be held at all costs, and then changed his policy several times. As the North Vietnamese launched their attack, panic set in, and ARVN resistance withered.


  • Huế, South Vietnam
    Saturday Mar 22, 1975

    The NVA opened the siege of Huế

    Huế, South Vietnam
    Saturday Mar 22, 1975

    On 22 March, the NVA opened the siege of Huế. Civilians flooded the airport and the docks hoping for any mode of escape.


  • South Vietnam
    Friday Mar 28, 1975

    35,000 NVA troops were poised to attack the suburbs

    South Vietnam
    Friday Mar 28, 1975

    By 28 March, 35,000 NVA troops were poised to attack the suburbs.


  • Huế, South Vietnam
    Sunday Mar 30, 1975

    The Fall of the city

    Huế, South Vietnam
    Sunday Mar 30, 1975

    By 30 March 100,000 leaderless ARVN troops surrendered as the NVA marched victoriously through Da Nang. With the fall of the city, the defense of the Central Highlands and Northern provinces came to an end.


  • Xuân Lộc, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 07, 1975

    Three North Vietnamese divisions attacked Xuân Lộc

    Xuân Lộc, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 07, 1975

    On 7 April, three North Vietnamese divisions attacked Xuân Lộc, 40 miles (64 km) east of Saigon. For two bloody weeks, severe fighting raged as the ARVN defenders made a last stand to try to block the North Vietnamese advance.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 21, 1975

    Withdraw towards Saigon

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 21, 1975

    On 21 April, however, the exhausted garrison was ordered to withdraw towards Saigon. An embittered and tearful president Thieu resigned on the same day, declaring that the United States had betrayed South Vietnam. In a scathing attack, he suggested U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had tricked him into signing the Paris peace agreement two years earlier, promising military aid that failed to materialize.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1975

    A Televised Speech

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1975

    President Gerald Ford had given a televised speech on 23 April, declaring an end to the Vietnam War and all U.S. aid. Frequent Wind continued around the clock, as North Vietnamese tanks breached defenses on the outskirts of Saigon.


  • Taiwan
    Friday Apr 25, 1975

    Thieu left for Taiwan

    Taiwan
    Friday Apr 25, 1975

    Having transferred power to Trần Văn Hương, he left for Taiwan on 25 April.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Sunday Apr 27, 1975

    100,000 North Vietnamese troops encircled Saigon

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Sunday Apr 27, 1975

    On 27 April, 100,000 North Vietnamese troops encircled Saigon. The city was defended by about 30,000 ARVN troops. To hasten a collapse and foment panic, the NVA shelled the airport and forced its closure. With the air exit closed, large numbers of civilians found that they had no way out.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1975

    The Largest Helicopter evacuation in history

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1975

    Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel. Frequent Wind was arguably the largest helicopter evacuation in history.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    NVA troops entered the city of Saigon

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    On 30 April 1975, NVA troops entered the city of Saigon and quickly overcame all resistance, capturing key buildings and installations. A tank from the 324th Division crashed through the gates of the Independence Palace at 11:30 am local time and the Viet Cong flag was raised above it. President Dương Văn Minh, who had succeeded Huong two days earlier, surrendered to Colonel Bùi Tín.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    The Last U.S. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    In the early morning hours of 30 April, the last U.S. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds. Many of them had been employed by the Americans and were left to their fate.


  • Vietnam
    1975

    Military Deaths In 1975

    Vietnam
    1975

    In 1975, 62 Americans were killed.


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