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  • Spain
    Sunday Feb 16, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Spanish general election, 1936

    Spain
    Sunday Feb 16, 1936

    After the ruling centre-right coalition collapsed amid the Straperlo corruption scandal, new elections were scheduled. Two wide coalitions formed: the Popular Front on the left, ranging from Republican Union to Communists, and the Frente Nacional on the right, ranging from the centre radicals to the conservative Carlists. On 16 February 1936, the left won by a narrow margin.




  • Canary Islands, Spain
    Sunday Feb 23, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    To the Canary Islands

    Canary Islands, Spain
    Sunday Feb 23, 1936

    On 23 February Franco was sent to the Canary Islands to serve as the islands' military commander, an appointment perceived by him as a destierro (banishment).




  • Busdongo de Arbás, León, Spain
    Saturday Mar 28, 1936

    Amancio Ortega

    Birth

    Busdongo de Arbás, León, Spain
    Saturday Mar 28, 1936

    on March 28, 1936, Ortega was born in Busdongo de Arbás, León, Spain, to Antonio Ortega Rodríguez and Josefa Gaona Hernández.




  • Spain
    Friday Jun 12, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General Juan Yagüe

    Spain
    Friday Jun 12, 1936

    On 12 June, Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General Juan Yagüe, who falsely convinced Casares of his loyalty to the republic. Mola began serious planning in the spring. Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as the man who suppressed the Asturian miners' strike of 1934. He was respected in the Army of Africa, the Army's toughest troops. He wrote a cryptic letter to Casares on 23 June, suggesting that the military was disloyal, but could be restrained if he were put in charge. Casares did nothing, failing to arrest or buy off Franco.




  • Spain
    Tuesday Jun 23, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Offering to quell the discontent in the Spanish Republican Army

    Spain
    Tuesday Jun 23, 1936

    On 23 June 1936, he wrote to the head of the government, Casares Quiroga, offering to quell the discontent in the Spanish Republican Army, but received no reply.




  • Canary Islands, Spain
    Saturday Jul 11, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    From the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco

    Canary Islands, Spain
    Saturday Jul 11, 1936

    With the help of the British Secret Intelligence Service agents Cecil Bebb and Major Hugh Pollard, the rebels chartered a Dragon Rapide aircraft (paid for with help from Juan March, the wealthiest man in Spain at the time) to transport Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco. The plane flew to the Canaries on 11 July, and Franco arrived in Morocco on 19 July.




  • Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Jul 12, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Falangists in Madrid killed police officer Lieutenant José Castillo of the Guardia de Asalto

    Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Jul 12, 1936

    On 12 July 1936, Falangists in Madrid killed police officer Lieutenant José Castillo of the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard). Castillo was a Socialist party member who, among other activities, was giving military training to the UGT youth. Castillo had led the Assault Guards that violently suppressed the riots after the funeral of Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes. (Los Reyes had been shot by anarchists during 14 April military parade commemorating the five years of the Republic.)


  • Spain
    Friday Jul 17, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Spanish Civil War

    Spain
    Friday Jul 17, 1936

    The Spanish Civil War began in July 1936 and officially ended with Franco's victory in April 1939, leaving 190,000 to 500,000 dead.


  • Seville, Spain
    Monday Jul 20, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Air bridge to Seville

    Seville, Spain
    Monday Jul 20, 1936

    From 20 July onward Franco was able, with a small group of 22 mainly German Junkers Ju 52 aircraft, to initiate an air bridge to Seville, where his troops helped to ensure the rebel control of the city.


  • Ferrol, Galicia, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 21, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Nationalists captured the central Spanish naval base

    Ferrol, Galicia, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 21, 1936

    On 21 July, the fifth day of the rebellion, the Nationalists captured the central Spanish naval base, located in Ferrol, Galicia.


  • Burgos, Spain
    Friday Jul 24, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Coordinating junta was established

    Burgos, Spain
    Friday Jul 24, 1936

    From 24 July a coordinating junta was established, based at Burgos. Nominally led by Cabanellas, as the most senior general, it initially included Mola, three other generals, and two colonels; Franco was later added in early August.


  • Spain
    Saturday Jul 25, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Negotiate with the for more military support

    Spain
    Saturday Jul 25, 1936

    Through representatives, he started to negotiate with the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy for more military support, and above all for more aircraft. Negotiations were successful with the last two on 25 July.


  • Spain
    Monday Jul 27, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    French government declared that it would not send military aid

    Spain
    Monday Jul 27, 1936

    In July 1936, British officials convinced Blum (the prime minister) not to send arms to the Republicans and, on 27 July, the French government declared that it would not send military aid, technology or forces to assist the Republican forces. However, Blum made clear that France reserved the right to provide aid should it wish to the Republic: "We could have delivered arms to the Spanish Government [Republicans], a legitimate government... We have not done so, in order not to give an excuse to those who would be tempted to send arms to the rebels [Nationalists]."


  • Spain
    Saturday Aug 1, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum

    Spain
    Saturday Aug 1, 1936

    On 1 August 1936, a pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum, demanding that he send aircraft to the Republicans, at the same time as right-wing politicians attacked Blum for supporting the Republic and being responsible for provoking Italian intervention on the side of Franco.


  • Spain
    Friday Aug 7, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans

    Spain
    Friday Aug 7, 1936

    However, the Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans covertly with Potez 540 bomber aircraft (nicknamed the "Flying Coffin" by Spanish Republican pilots), Dewoitine aircraft, and Loire 46 fighter aircraft being sent from 7 August 1936 to December of that year to Republican forces.


  • Spain
    Friday Sep 4, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    The Republican government under Giral resigned

    Spain
    Friday Sep 4, 1936

    The Republic proved ineffective militarily, relying on disorganised revolutionary militias. The Republican government under Giral resigned on 4 September, unable to cope with the situation, and was replaced by a mostly Socialist organisation under Francisco Largo Caballero. The new leadership began to unify central command in the republican zone.


  • Gipuzkoa, Spain
    Saturday Sep 5, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Nationalists closed the French border to the Republicans

    Gipuzkoa, Spain
    Saturday Sep 5, 1936

    On 5 September, the Nationalists closed the French border to the Republicans in the battle of Irún.


  • San Sebastián, Spain
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    San Sebastián was taken by Nationalist soldiers

    San Sebastián, Spain
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1936

    On 15 September, San Sebastian, home to a divided Republican force of anarchists and Basque nationalists, was taken by Nationalist soldiers.


  • Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Commander-in-chief and head of government

    Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    On 21 September it was decided that Franco was to be commander-in-chief (this unified command was opposed only by Cabanellas), and, after some discussion, with no more than a lukewarm agreement from Queipo de Llano and from Mola, also head of government. Emilio Mola y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee of Spain was one of the three leaders of the Nationalist coup of July 1936, which started the Spanish Civil War.


  • Toledo, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    A Detour to free the besieged garrison at the Alcázar of Toledo

    Toledo, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    On 21 September, with the head of the column at the town of Maqueda (some 80 km away from Madrid), Franco ordered a detour to free the besieged garrison at the Alcázar of Toledo, which was achieved on 27 September.


  • Salamanca, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Franco was chosen as chief military commander at a meeting of ranking generals

    Salamanca, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    On the Nationalist side, Franco was chosen as chief military commander at a meeting of ranking generals at Salamanca on 21 September, now called by the title Generalísimo.


  • Toledo, Spain
    Sunday Sep 27, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Siege of the Alcázar

    Toledo, Spain
    Sunday Sep 27, 1936

    Franco won another victory on 27 September when his troops relieved the siege of the Alcázar in Toledo.


  • Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Head of State

    Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    On 1 October 1936, in Burgos, Franco was publicly proclaimed as Generalísimo of the National army and Jefe del Estado (Head of State).


  • Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    General Franco was confirmed head of state and armies in Burgos

    Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    On 1 October 1936, General Franco was confirmed head of state and armies in Burgos. A similar dramatic success for the Nationalists occurred on 17 October, when troops coming from Galicia relieved the besieged town of Oviedo, in Northern Spain.


  • Valencia, Spain
    Friday Nov 6, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Republican government was forced to shift from Madrid to Valencia

    Valencia, Spain
    Friday Nov 6, 1936

    The Republican government was forced to shift from Madrid to Valencia, outside the combat zone, on 6 November.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Nov 8, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Francoist troops launched a major offensive toward Madrid

    Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Nov 8, 1936

    In October, the Francoist troops launched a major offensive toward Madrid, reaching it in early November and launching a major assault on the city on 8 November.


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