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  • Orly Airport near Paris, France
    Monday Jan 13, 1975

    Carlos the Jackal

    Attacks on El Al airplanes at Orly Airport

    Orly Airport near Paris, France
    Monday Jan 13, 1975

    He later participated in two failed rocket propelled grenade attacks on El Al airplanes at Orly Airport near Paris on 13 and 17 January 1975.




  • Schenectady, New York, U.S.
    Monday Jan 13, 1975

    Andrew Yang

    Birth

    Schenectady, New York, U.S.
    Monday Jan 13, 1975

    Yang was born in Schenectady, New York, on January 13, 1975. His parents were from Taiwan and immigrated to the U.S. in the 1960s. They met while they were both in graduate school at the University of California, Berkeley. His father graduated with a Ph.D. in physics and worked in the research labs of IBM and General Electric, generating over 69 patents in his career. His mother graduated with a master's degree in statistics and became a systems administrator at a local university. Yang has an older brother, Lawrence, who is a psychology professor.




  • London, England
    Tuesday Feb 11, 1975

    Margaret Thatcher

    Leader of The Opposition

    London, England
    Tuesday Feb 11, 1975

    Heath's leadership of the Conservative Party looked increasingly in doubt. Thatcher was not initially seen as the obvious replacement, but she eventually became the main challenger, promising a fresh start. Her main support came from the parliamentary 1922 Committee and The Spectator. She defeated Heath on the first ballot and he resigned the leadership. In the second ballot she defeated Whitelaw, Heath's preferred successor. Thatcher became Conservative Party leader and Leader of the Opposition on 11 February 1975; she appointed Whitelaw as her deputy.




  • Vietnam
    Monday Mar 10, 1975

    Vietnam War

    General Dung launched Campaign 275

    Vietnam
    Monday Mar 10, 1975

    On 10 March 1975, General Dung launched Campaign 275, a limited offensive into the Central Highlands, supported by tanks and heavy artillery. The target was Buôn Ma Thuột, in Đắk Lắk Province.




  • South Vietnam
    Tuesday Mar 11, 1975

    Vietnam War

    The ARVN proved incapable of resisting the onslaught

    South Vietnam
    Tuesday Mar 11, 1975

    The ARVN proved incapable of resisting the onslaught, and its forces collapsed on 11 March.




  • Huế, South Vietnam
    Thursday Mar 20, 1975

    Vietnam War

    Thieu reversed himself and ordered Huế

    Huế, South Vietnam
    Thursday Mar 20, 1975

    On 20 March, Thieu reversed himself and ordered Huế, Vietnam's third-largest city, be held at all costs, and then changed his policy several times. As the North Vietnamese launched their attack, panic set in, and ARVN resistance withered.




  • Huế, South Vietnam
    Saturday Mar 22, 1975

    Vietnam War

    The NVA opened the siege of Huế

    Huế, South Vietnam
    Saturday Mar 22, 1975

    On 22 March, the NVA opened the siege of Huế. Civilians flooded the airport and the docks hoping for any mode of escape.


  • South Vietnam
    Friday Mar 28, 1975

    Vietnam War

    35,000 NVA troops were poised to attack the suburbs

    South Vietnam
    Friday Mar 28, 1975

    By 28 March, 35,000 NVA troops were poised to attack the suburbs.


  • Huế, South Vietnam
    Sunday Mar 30, 1975

    Vietnam War

    The Fall of the city

    Huế, South Vietnam
    Sunday Mar 30, 1975

    By 30 March 100,000 leaderless ARVN troops surrendered as the NVA marched victoriously through Da Nang. With the fall of the city, the defense of the Central Highlands and Northern provinces came to an end.


  • Hamilton, Ohio, U.S.
    Sunday Mar 30, 1975

    Mass Shootings in the United States

    Easter Sunday Massacre

    Hamilton, Ohio, U.S.
    Sunday Mar 30, 1975

    James Urban Ruppert, is an American murderer, who was responsible for one of the deadliest shootings inside a private residence in US history. On Easter Sunday, March 30, 1975, Ruppert murdered 11 family members in his mother's house at 635 Minor Avenue in Hamilton, Ohio in what has been referred to as the "Easter Sunday Massacre." He is serving two life sentences at the Allen Oakwood Correctional Institution in Lima, Ohio.


  • Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.
    Friday Apr 4, 1975

    Microsoft

    Establishment

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.
    Friday Apr 4, 1975

    Gates and Allen officially established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO. The original name of "Micro-Soft" (short for microcomputer software) was suggested by Allen.


  • Xuân Lộc, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 7, 1975

    Vietnam War

    Three North Vietnamese divisions attacked Xuân Lộc

    Xuân Lộc, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 7, 1975

    On 7 April, three North Vietnamese divisions attacked Xuân Lộc, 40 miles (64 km) east of Saigon. For two bloody weeks, severe fighting raged as the ARVN defenders made a last stand to try to block the North Vietnamese advance.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 21, 1975

    Vietnam War

    Withdraw towards Saigon

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Monday Apr 21, 1975

    On 21 April, however, the exhausted garrison was ordered to withdraw towards Saigon. An embittered and tearful president Thieu resigned on the same day, declaring that the United States had betrayed South Vietnam. In a scathing attack, he suggested U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had tricked him into signing the Paris peace agreement two years earlier, promising military aid that failed to materialize.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1975

    Vietnam War

    A Televised Speech

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1975

    President Gerald Ford had given a televised speech on 23 April, declaring an end to the Vietnam War and all U.S. aid. Frequent Wind continued around the clock, as North Vietnamese tanks breached defenses on the outskirts of Saigon.


  • Taiwan
    Friday Apr 25, 1975

    Vietnam War

    Thieu left for Taiwan

    Taiwan
    Friday Apr 25, 1975

    Having transferred power to Trần Văn Hương, he left for Taiwan on 25 April.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Sunday Apr 27, 1975

    Vietnam War

    100,000 North Vietnamese troops encircled Saigon

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Sunday Apr 27, 1975

    On 27 April, 100,000 North Vietnamese troops encircled Saigon. The city was defended by about 30,000 ARVN troops. To hasten a collapse and foment panic, the NVA shelled the airport and forced its closure. With the air exit closed, large numbers of civilians found that they had no way out.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1975

    Vietnam War

    The Largest Helicopter evacuation in history

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1975

    Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel. Frequent Wind was arguably the largest helicopter evacuation in history.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    Vietnam War

    NVA troops entered the city of Saigon

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    On 30 April 1975, NVA troops entered the city of Saigon and quickly overcame all resistance, capturing key buildings and installations. A tank from the 324th Division crashed through the gates of the Independence Palace at 11:30 am local time and the Viet Cong flag was raised above it. President Dương Văn Minh, who had succeeded Huong two days earlier, surrendered to Colonel Bùi Tín.


  • Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    Vietnam War

    The Last U.S. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter

    Saigon, South Vietnam
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1975

    In the early morning hours of 30 April, the last U.S. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds. Many of them had been employed by the Americans and were left to their fate.


  • Tokyo, Japan
    Saturday May 10, 1975

    Sony Corporation

    Launching the Betamax

    Tokyo, Japan
    Saturday May 10, 1975

    The company launched the Betamax videocassette recording format in 1975. Sony was involved in the videotape format war of the early 1980s, when they were marketing the Betamax system for video cassette recorders against the VHS format developed by JVC. In the end, VHS gained critical mass in the marketbase and became the worldwide standard for consumer VCRs.


  • Tokyo, Japan
    Saturday May 10, 1975

    Akio Morita

    Releasing The First Betamax Home Video Recorder

    Tokyo, Japan
    Saturday May 10, 1975

    In 1975, it released the first Betamax home video recorder, a year before VHS format came out.


  • Argentina
    Thursday May 29, 1975

    Diego Maradona

    International debut

    Argentina
    Thursday May 29, 1975

    He made his full international debut at age 16.


  • United Kingdom
    Thursday Jun 5, 1975

    Brexit

    67.2% of the electorate and all but two UK counties and regions voted to stay in

    United Kingdom
    Thursday Jun 5, 1975

    On 5 June 1975, 67.2% of the electorate and all but two UK counties and regions voted to stay in; support for the UK to leave the EC in 1975 appears unrelated to the support for Leave in the 2016 referendum.


  • United Kingdom
    Thursday Jun 5, 1975

    Brexit

    EC membership referendum of 1975

    United Kingdom
    Thursday Jun 5, 1975

    In the EC membership referendum of 1975, two-thirds of British voters favoured continued EC membership. Over the decades of UK-EU membership, Euroscepticism existed on both the left and right of British politics.


  • Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Wednesday Jun 11, 1975

    Indira Gandhi

    The Allahabad High Court declaration

    Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Wednesday Jun 11, 1975

    On 12 June 1975, the Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha in 1971 void on grounds of electoral malpractice. The court ordered her stripped of her parliamentary seat and banned from running for any office for six years. As the constitution holds that the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha, the two houses of the Parliament of India, this would have effectively removed her from office. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court. Gandhi insisted that the conviction did not undermine her position, despite having been unseated from Lok Sabha.


  • U.S.
    Friday Jun 20, 1975

    Steven Spielberg

    Steven's First Blockbuster

    U.S.
    Friday Jun 20, 1975

    Studio producers Richard D. Zanuck and David Brown offered Spielberg the director's chair for Jaws, a thriller-horror film based on the Peter Benchley novel about an enormous killer shark. Spielberg has often referred to the gruelling shoot as his professional crucible. Despite the film's ultimate, enormous success, it was nearly shut down due to delays and budget over-runs. But Spielberg persevered and finished the film. It was an enormous hit, winning three Academy Awards (for editing, original score and sound) and grossing more than $470 million worldwide at the box office. Jaws made Spielberg a household name and one of America's youngest multi-millionaires.


  • India
    Tuesday Jun 24, 1975

    Indira Gandhi

    Declaring State of Emergency

    India
    Tuesday Jun 24, 1975

    Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352(1) of the Constitution, on 25 June 1975.


  • New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 10, 1975

    Pelé

    To New York Cosmos

    New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 10, 1975

    Pelé retired from Brazilian club football although he continued to occasionally play for Santos in official competitive matches. Two years later, he came out of semi-retirement to sign with the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League (NASL) for the 1975 season.


  • Paris, France
    Saturday Jul 26, 1975

    Carlos the Jackal

    A Parisian house party

    Paris, France
    Saturday Jul 26, 1975

    On 26 June 1975, Carlos's PFLP contact, Lebanon-born Michel Moukharbal, was captured and interrogated by the French domestic intelligence agency, the DST. When two unarmed agents of the DST interrogated Carlos at a Parisian house party, Moukharbal revealed Carlos's identity. Carlos then shot and killed the two agents and Moukharbal, fled the scene, and managed to escape via Brussels to Beirut.


  • Pontiac, Michigan, U.S.
    Wednesday Jul 30, 1975

    Jimmy Hoffa

    Hoffa stopped in Pontiac

    Pontiac, Michigan, U.S.
    Wednesday Jul 30, 1975

    On July 30, 1975, Hoffa stopped in Pontiac at the office of his close friend Louis Linteau, a former president of Teamsters Local 614 who now ran a limousine service.


  • Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 31, 1975

    Jimmy Hoffa

    Hoffa's wife called the police

    Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 31, 1975

    On July 31, 1975, Hoffa's wife called the police, who later arrived at the scene. State police were brought in and the FBI was alerted.


  • Cambridge, Cambridge, England
    Saturday Aug 2, 1975

    Prince Charles

    Master of Arts degree

    Cambridge, Cambridge, England
    Saturday Aug 2, 1975

    On 2 August 1975, he was awarded a Master of Arts degree from Cambridge, in accordance with the university's practice.


  • Zhumadian, Henan Province, China
    Thursday Aug 7, 1975

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    Typhoon Nina (1975)

    Zhumadian, Henan Province, China
    Thursday Aug 7, 1975

    Typhoon Nina, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Bebeng, was the fourth-deadliest tropical cyclone on record. At least 229,000 people died after the Banqiao Dam (in Zhumadian, Henan Province, China) collapsed and devastated areas downstream. The collapse of the dam due to heavy floods also caused a string of smaller dams to collapse, adding more damage caused by the typhoon.


  • A Coruña, Spain
    Thursday Aug 7, 1975

    Zara

    First store

    A Coruña, Spain
    Thursday Aug 7, 1975

    Zara was founded in 1975 by Amancio Ortega and Rosalía Mera as a family business in the northern part of Spain, downtown Galicia. Its first store featured low-priced, trendy, high-end clothing and fashion lookalike items. Amancio Ortega called Zara as such because his preferred name Zorba was already taken.


  • Manila, Philippines
    Wednesday Oct 1, 1975

    Muhammad Ali Clay

    "Thrilla in Manila"

    Manila, Philippines
    Wednesday Oct 1, 1975

    Ali then agreed to a third match with Joe Frazier in Manila. The bout, known as the "Thrilla in Manila", was held on October 1, 1975


  • Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Oct 30, 1975

    Juan Carlos I

    Franco gives full control to Juan Carlos

    Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Oct 30, 1975

    During periods of Franco's temporary incapacity in 1974 and 1975, Juan Carlos was acting head of state. On 30 October 1975, Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos.


  • U.S.
    Monday Nov 10, 1975

    United Nations

    United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379

    U.S.
    Monday Nov 10, 1975

    Third World nations organized into the Group of 77 coalition under the leadership of Algeria, which briefly became a dominant power at the UN. On 10 November 1975, a bloc comprising the USSR and Third World nations passed a resolution, over the strenuous US and Israeli opposition, declaring Zionism to be racism; the resolution was repealed on 16 December 1991, shortly after the end of the Cold War.


  • New York, U.S.
    Friday Nov 14, 1975

    Russell Bufalino

    The police stopped a car driven by Bufalino

    New York, U.S.
    Friday Nov 14, 1975

    The police stopped a car driven by Bufalino, whose passengers included Genovese and three other men, at a roadblock as they left the estate; Bufalino said that he had come to visit his sick friend, Barbara. All those apprehended were fined, up to $10,000 each, and given prison sentences ranging from three to five years.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Nov 20, 1975

    Juan Carlos I

    Franco's Death

    Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Nov 20, 1975

    Franco died on 20 November, three weeks after giving full control to Juan.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Nov 20, 1975

    Francisco Franco

    Death

    Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Nov 20, 1975

    Officially, he died a few minutes after midnight on 20 November 1975 from heart failure, at the age of 82.


  • United Kingdom
    Friday Nov 21, 1975

    Freddie Mercury

    Love of My Life

    United Kingdom
    Friday Nov 21, 1975

    He also wrote several songs about Austin, including "Love of My Life".


  • Madrid, Spain
    Saturday Nov 22, 1975

    Juan Carlos I

    Juan Carlos King of Spain

    Madrid, Spain
    Saturday Nov 22, 1975

    On 22 November, two days after Franco's death, the Cortes Españolas proclaimed Juan Carlos King of Spain.


  • The Church of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Nov 25, 1975

    Juan Carlos I

    Church Ceremony

    The Church of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Nov 25, 1975

    On 27 November, a Mass of the Holy Spirit was celebrated in the church of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid to inaugurate his reign. He opted not to call himself Juan III or Carlos V, but Juan Carlos I.


  • Timor-Leste
    Friday Nov 28, 1975

    Xanana Gusmão

    Fretilin declared The Independence of Portuguese Timor

    Timor-Leste
    Friday Nov 28, 1975

    On 28 November 1975, Fretilin declared the independence of Portuguese Timor as "The Democratic Republic of East Timor", and Gusmão was responsible for filming the ceremony.


  • New York, U.S.
    Saturday Nov 29, 1975

    Black Friday

    "The busiest shopping and traffic day of the year"

    New York, U.S.
    Saturday Nov 29, 1975

    Use of the phrase spread slowly, first appearing in The New York Times on November 29, 1975, in which it still refers specifically to "the busiest shopping and traffic day of the year" in Philadelphia. Although it soon became more widespread, The Philadelphia Inquirer reported in 1985 that retailers in Cincinnati and Los Angeles were still unaware of the term.


  • New Delhi, India
    Saturday Nov 29, 1975

    Indira Gandhi

    Minister of Defence

    New Delhi, India
    Saturday Nov 29, 1975

    On 30 November 1975, she became Minister of Defence of India for a month.


  • Timor-Leste
    Sunday Dec 7, 1975

    Xanana Gusmão

    Indonesian occupation of East Timor

    Timor-Leste
    Sunday Dec 7, 1975

    Nine days later, Indonesia invaded East Timor. At the time Gusmão was visiting friends outside of Dili and he witnessed the invasion from the hills. For the next few days he searched for his family.


  • Vienna, Austria
    Sunday Dec 21, 1975

    Carlos the Jackal

    OPEC Attack

    Vienna, Austria
    Sunday Dec 21, 1975

    On 21 December 1975, he led the six-person team (which included Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann) that attacked the meeting of OPEC leaders; they took more than 60 hostages and killed three: an Austrian policeman, an Iraqi OPEC employee and a member of the Libyan delegation. Carlos demanded that the Austrian authorities read a communiqué about the Palestinian cause on Austrian radio and television networks every two hours. To avoid the threatened execution of a hostage every 15 minutes, the Austrian government agreed and the communiqué was broadcast as demanded.


  • Algiers, Algeria
    Monday Dec 22, 1975

    Carlos the Jackal

    The hostages' release

    Algiers, Algeria
    Monday Dec 22, 1975

    On 22 December, the government provided the PFLP and 42 hostages an airplane and flew them to Algiers, as demanded for the hostages' release. Ex-Royal Navy pilot Neville Atkinson, at that time the personal pilot for Libya's leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, flew Carlos and a number of others, including Hans-Joachim Klein, a supporter of the imprisoned Red Army Faction and a member of the Revolutionary Cells, and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann, from Algiers.


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